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Peace History

The chart below lists each day of the year and peace history events. The chart was given to the Peace Resource Center by the William Penn House in Washington, D.C. and was created for the Teachers of Peace Conference.

Besides the Peace History, check the International Holidays pages for more calendar related peace information.

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Today in Peace and Justice History

  EVENT
JANUARY
1-Jan World Peace Day
1-Jan A law making slave importation into the U.S. illegal becomes effective. (1808)
1-Jan William Lloyd Garrison publishes The Liberator, the leading abolitionist paper in the United States. (1831)
1-Jan Michigan becomes the first state to abolish capital punishment. (1847)
1-Jan President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
1-Jan Arrest of 10 anti-nuclear activists for trespassing at Nevada Test Site culminates a 54-day encampment at the main Test Site gate. The  camp establishes momentum for what became a movement of over 10,000 arrests in numerous Test Site protests over the following years. (1986)
1-Jan Czechoslovakia peacefully split into two new countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. (1993)
2-Jan Free Black community of Philadelphia petitions Congress to abolish slavery. (1800)
2-Jan President Roosevelt shuts down the post office in Indianola, Mississippi, for refusing to accept its appointed postmistress because she is African-American. (1903)
2-Jan Conference of Industrial Unionists in Chicago forms the Industrial Workers of the World  (IWW), known as The Wobblies. (1905)
2-Jan An estimated 100,000 Bangladeshi women traveled from the countryside to attend a rally in Dacca, the capital, to protest Islamic clerics' attacks on women's education &  employment. (1996)
3-Jan Political and social reformer Lucretia Coffin Mott was born in Nantucket, MA. (1793) 
3-Jan Martin Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church. (1521)
3-Jan Samuel Leamon Younge Jr., a student civil rights activist, was fatally shot by a white gas station owner following an argument over segregated restrooms, in Tuskeegee, Ala.(1966)
3-Jan President Carter pardons most of the Vietnam war draft resisters, nearly 10,000 qualified. (1977)
4-Jan Burma, now known as Myanmar, becomes an independent sovereign nation, ending more than six decades of British rule. (1948)
4-Jan Free Speech Movement  holds its first legal rally on Sproul Plaza,  University of California at Berkeley. (1965)
5-Jan  Felix Manz, first Anabaptist martyr, sentenced to death, Zurich. (1527)
5-Jan Committee Against Nuclear Power Plants stops plant planned for Queens, NY. (1964)
5-Jan "Prague Spring,"  political and economic reforms, including increased freedom of speech and an end to state censorship, begins in Czechoslovakia. (1968)
5-Jan 20,000 miners in WV strike to protest the murder of Jock Yablonski, reform miners leader. (1970)
5-Jan 19 arrested in "Homes Not War" protest, Tucson, Arizona. (1971)
6-Jan First world anti-slavery convention held. (1831)
6-Jan William Lloyd Garrison and 15 others found New England Anti-Slavery Society (1832)
6-Jan President Roosevelt introduces the term "Four Freedoms": free speech & expression; free to worship; free from fear; & free from want. (1941)
7-Jan Marian Anderson debuts at the Metropolitan Opera, becoming the first African American to perform at America's most prestigious opera house. (1955)
7-Jan Objecting to an increase in bus fares, Africans in Alexandria Township outside Johannesburg lauch a total boycott, most choosing to walk as far as 18 miles a day. 14,000 were arrtested and a compromise was reached 12 weeks later. (1957)
7-Jan First airplane bombing experiments with explosives, San Francisco. (1911)
7-Jan  Federal courts forbid most uses of the pesticide DDT, nine  years after the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. (1971)
8-Jan In the battle of Dove Creek, near San Angleo, 370 Texas militiamen attacked what was assumed to be an encampment of 1400 Comanches but were peaceful Kickapoo, in one of the last battles in Texas between  Anglos & Native Americans. (1865)
8-Jan Congress overrides the president's veto of a bill granting all adult male citizens of the District of Columbia the right to vote, the first election law passed in America granting  African-American men the right to vote. (1867)
8-Jan Birth of A.J. Muste, founder of Fellowship of Reconciliation (1885)
8-Jan African National Congress founded in South Africa. (1912)
8-Jan Legislation passed allowing Kickapoo tribal members, who live on both sides of Rio Grande near Eagle Pass, Texas, to apply for U.S. citizenship. (1983)
8-Jan 200 Teamsters leaders hold "Labor for Peace" meeting to  oppose Gulf War, New York City. (1991)
8-Jan Mothers' March For Life & Compassion to Grozny, Chechnya,  leaves Moscow, Russia. (1995)
9-Jan Treaty with the Wyandot, Delaware, Ottowa, Potawatomi, & Sauk is the first in the new U.S. to recognize Native Americans as independent "nations." (1789)
9-Jan American feminist Carrie Chapman Catt, pacifist & suffragist, co-founder of Women's Peace Party & League of Women Voters, is born. (1859)
9-Jan Southern Tenant Farmers' Union lead Missouri Highway sit-down of 1,700 tenant families. (1939)
9-Jan Ten  peace activists are arrested at Fort McCoy, WI for handing out written warnings to military reservists about participation in war crimes. (1991)
10-Jan The White House is picketed for the first time, in support of Women's sufferage. (1917)
10-Jan Versailles Treaty, establishing League of Nations (1920)
10-Jan Thomas Paine published his influential pamphlet, "Common Sense."  (1773)
10-Jan Brethren, Mennonites and Friends send message to President Roosevelt asking for  alternative service in event of war. (1940)
10-Jan Vernon  Dahmer, a wealthy businessman in Hattiesburg, Miss., offered to pay poll taxes for those who couldn’t afford the fee required to vote. The night after a radio station broadcasted Dahmer’s offer, his home was firebombed. Dahmer died later from severe burns. (1966)
10-Jan Guatemalan officials and leftist guerilla movement agree to negotiate to end 30 years of violent conflict. (1994)
11-Jan During the Hungarian Protestant's struggle against restrictive religious laws, the Calvinists of the Trans-Tisza Church District met in defiance of a government order; 500 church officials and thousands of laymen attended. (1860)
11-Jan Alice Paul, chief strategist for the militant wing of the suffrage movement and author of the Equal Rights Amendment, was born in Moorestown, NJ (1885)
11-Jan A young lawyer,  Mohandas Gandhi, is jailed for the first time, in Johannesburg, South Africa, for  refusing to register as an Asian. (1911)
11-Jan Peace Pledge Union organizes "Operation Gandhi,"  first British protest against nuclear weapons, London. (1952)
12-Jan SCLC founded by Martin Luther King and other Black clergymen (1957)
12-Jan Twenty West German judges arrested for blockading the U.S. Air Force base at Mutlangen, West Germany. (1987)
13-Jan Novelist Emile Zola exposes rampant French anti-Semitism & a military cover up in the Dreyfus Affair with  publication of J'accuse! (1898)
13-Jan Birthday of Danish playwright & priest Kaj Munk, whose outspoken sermons & plays during World War II led to his execution by the Nazis. (1898)
13-Jan U.S. Supreme Court rules (5-3) public school officials have broad  powers to censor school newspapers, plays & other expressive  activities. (1988)
13-Jan Vigil against arrival of ship bringing plutonium for nuclear reactor, Tokai, Japan. (1993)
14-Jan Church authorities burn Hebrew books  in Rome. (1601)
14-Jan Martin Niemoller, German Minister imprisoned for many years by the Nazis, born (1892)
14-Jan Birth of Albert Schweitzer in Kaysersberg, Alsace-Lorraine, Germany. (1875)
14-Jan US Supreme Court rules unconstitutional any state law requiring railroads to provide equal accommodations for  passengers, regardless of race or color. (1878)
14-Jan U.S. Supreme Court upholds  constitutionality of the selective service law, affirms  all criminal charges arising  from non-compliance with the draft. (1918)
14-Jan A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters & chief spokesperson for the African American working class, calls for a March on Washington, demanding racial integration of the military & equal access to defense-industry jobs. (1941)
14-Jan George Wallace sworn in as Governor of Alabama; his  address states "segregation now; segregation tomorrow; segregation forever!". (1963)
14-Jan March on Atlanta to protest ouster of Julian Bond, African American  pacifist, from Georgia  House of Representatives, after his endorsement of SNCC statement critical of  US involvement in Vietnam. (1966)
14-Jan Peace accords signed to dismantle Ukraine's nuclear weapons  & take U.S. & Russian missiles off Ukrainian targets. (1994)
15-Jan Four days after the Franco-Belgian invasion of the Ruhr, the Ruhr area and occupied Rhineland held a 30 minute protest strike to indicate their willingness to resist. (1923)
15-Jan The United States Senate ratified the Kellogg-Brian pact, which outlawed war. (1929)
15-Jan Birth of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929)
15-Jan Jeanette Rankin Brigade, led by  87-year-old Rankin, the first U.S. Congresswoman &  the only member of Congress to vote against U.S. entry to both World Wars, marches on Washington  to protest war in Vietnam. (1968)
15-Jan Trial of Janet McCloud (Tulalip Indian tribe) & others for "fish-in" on Nisqually River in Washington state in 1965; all are found not guilty. (1969)
15-Jan Vigils around the world mark expiry of US/UN deadline for military attack on Iraq if they don't leave Kuwait. (1991)
16-Jan In Hawaii, Queen Lilluokalani's regime is overthrown by US pineapple tycoon Sanford Dole  & pro-annexation sugar interests. (1893)
16-Jan Senator James  Eastland introduces resolution to declare a "state of emergency" in  the U.S. Allows Congress to invoke a McCarran Internal Security Act provision under which American Communists could be rounded up & jailed in concentration camps. (1952)
16-Jan Sicilian Danilo Dolci completed a seven day fast against the mafia, calling for a casting off of feat which imposted omerta and preventing gathering of evidence of Mafia crimes. (1966)
16-Jan Jan Palach immolates himself to protest Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.(1969)
17-Jan Mangas Colorado, Apache chief, agrees to peace talks, is then arrested & imprisoned at Fort McLane (Arizona), then shot by two soldiers in his cell. (1863)
17-Jan Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving tens of thousands of Jews, disappeared in Hungary while in Soviet custody. (1945)
17-Jan President Eisenhower delivers Farewell Address warning the nation of the "Military- Industrial Complex." (1961)
17-Jan Chicano/a activists gather in Crystal City, TX, to form La Raza Unida Party. (1970)
17-Jan 5,000 rally, 138 arrested to protest test launch of first strike Trident Missile, Cape Canaveral, FL (1987) 
17-Jan Over 2000 indigenous Tzeltals & Tojolbals from the state of Chiapas, Mexico, occupy the military barracks of the 39th Military Zone in protest over Army  incursions into their communities. (1998)
18-Jan US begins spraying foliage in Vietnam to expose Viet Cong guerrillas.  The US dropped millions of gallons of herbicides such as Agent Orange which sparked charges that the United States was violating international norms against using chemical weapons in war, and many of the herbicides were later found to cause birth defects and rare forms of cancer in humans. (1962)
18-Jan Greenham women 'keen' outside House of Commons. (1982)
19-Jan 59 arrested in civil rights sit in, Chattanooga, TN (1960)
19-Jan 25,000 march in Washington, DC against massive U.S. bombing of Iraq.  (1991)
19-Jan "Shoes for Guns"  firearm buy-back effort begins in  Chicago. (1994)
20-Jan American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) founded. (1920)
20-Jan Nazi officials hold notorious Wannsee conference in Berlin deciding on  "final solution" calling for extermination of Europe's Jews. (1942)
20-Jan Over 200 citizens show up at a Seattle public hearing,  many in radiation suits & mutant radioactive survivor makeup, & conduct die-ins to protest possible restart of nuclear weapon production at Hanford, Washington. (1998)
21-Jan Quaker Peace Testimony presented to Charles II, England. (1661)
21-Jan Emma Tenayuca leads San Antonio pecan shellers on the largest labor walk-out held to date. (1938) 
21-Jan Spanish, Portuguese & South American activists hijack Portuguese liner "Santa Maria" to protest the Franco & Salazar dictatorships. (1961)
21-Jan Continental Walk for Disarmament & Social Justice starts in Ukiah, California, headed for Washington, D.C. (1976)
21-Jan Women for Peace founded, Norway (1980)
21-Jan Women's resistance camp set up, Volkel airbase, the Netherlands. (1984)
21-Jan 60 protesters with bathrobes, shower caps, & toothbrushes traipse through upscale stores  in downtown Seattle, looking for a place to take a shower, in a protest drawing attention to City Council plans to kill a proposed downtown public hygiene center that could be used by the homeless. (1997)
22-Jan In a massacre known as Bloody Sunday, soldiers fired on civilians attempting to present petitions for better living and working conditionsto the Czar. The Russian workers lost faith in the Czar and turned to radicals and revolution to change their lives. (1905)
22-Jan 200 killed by Somoza's National Guard during protest against state violence, Managua, Nicaragua. (1967)
22-Jan 12 African-American congressmen boycott President Richard Nixon's State of the Union Address because of his constant refusal to hear the concerns of Black Americans. (1971)
22-Jan World Council of Churches announces South African divestment. (1973)
22-Jan Over 2,000 demonstrators in Moscow protest Chechen war. (1995)
22-Jan 150,000 workers in South Korea walk off their jobs to protest recent labor legislation. (1997)
23-Jan First British Disarmament Campaign, Liverpool, England  (1875)
23-Jan 15 "Committee of 100" supporters sit in at House of Commons demanding halt to nuclear weapon tests. (1962)
23-Jan 24th Amendment to U.S. Constitution passed, outlawing poll taxes in  federal elections. (1964)
24-Jan John Lennon & Yoko Ono shaved their heads  to commemorate  the start of Year One for Peace. (1970)
25-Jan Sojourner Truth addresses first Black Women's Rights Convention, Akron, OH  (1851)
25-Jan In May1930, Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned for his incitement against the British monopoly on salt; it was illegal for anyone other than the British government in India to manufacture or sell salt.  He was released on this date. (1930)
25-Jan At least half a million mourners attended the funeral of Jan Palach to honor the young student who immolated himself as an expression of devotion of Czechoslovakian freedom. (1969)
25-Jan INFACT (Infant Formula Action Coalition) wins settlement with Nestle Corporation after a seven year boycott. (1984)
25-Jan Soldiers' Mothers Committee begins 56 mile peace march between Nazran & Grozny, Chechnya. (1995) 
26-Jan The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, later defeated by a filibuster in the Senate. (1922)
26-Jan The Indian Constitution became law and India proclaimed itself a republic, whose sovereignty was derived from the people, becoming the largest democracy in the world.  (1950)
26-Jan First US Nuclear test at Nevada Test Site (1951)
26-Jan Major accident occurs at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine. The radiation cloud killed 23; 40,000 were evacuated. (1986)
26-Jan 100,000 march against Gulf War, New York City & San Francisco. (1991)
26-Jan Women in Black demonstrate in solidarity with their Serbian sisters, Toronto, Canada. (1993)
27-Jan The United States and North Vietnam signed a cease-fire agreement. The same day, the United States announced an end to the military draft. (1973)
27-Jan Nationwide strike by some 10,000 conscientious objectors, West Germany. (1983)
27-Jan France conducted an open-air nuclear test in the South Pacific. (1996)
28-Jan Author and activist Julia Ward Howe became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. (1908)
28-Jan A federal judge in Los Angeles ruled that the U.S. military's policy against homosexuals was unconstitutional because it was "based on cultural myths and false stereotypes." (1993)
29-Jan Four women Ploughshares activists cause millions in damage, disarming a British Aerospace F-16 fighter jet destined to be sold to Indonesia for use in its illegal occupation & genocide of East Timor. The women were later acquitted of all charges on the grounds of preventing a greater crime. Warton, England. (1996)
30-Jan Gandhi Assassinated, New Delhi. (1948)
30-Jan As Martin Luther King, Jr. stands at the pulpit, leading a mass meeting  during the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott, his home is bombed. (1956)
30-Jan In a clash with British troops, 14 Irish civilians were killed in Derry, Ireland. This is remembered as Ireland's "Bloody Sunday." (1972)
31-Jan US government orders all Native Americans to move to reservations or be declared hostile. (1876)
31-Jan Pacifist priest Thomas Merton born in Pyrenees-Orientales, France. (1915)
31-Jan The Winter Soldier Hearings begin in a Howard Johnson's motel in Detroit. Sponsored by the group Vietnam Veterans Against the War, the hearings are an attempt by soldiers who have served in Vietnam to publicize U.S. conduct in the war. (1971)
31-Jan 300,000 Berliners rally against attacks on immigrants, racism and Nazism on the 60th anniversary of Hitler's rise to power. (1993)
31-Jan Illinois Gov. George Ryan halted all executions in his state after several death row inmates were found to be innocent of the crimes for which they were about to be put to death. (2000)
FEBRUARY
1-Feb Four African American students sit in at Woolworth's, Greensboro, NC (1960)
1-Feb Saigon's police chief, Nguyen Ngoc Loan, executed a Viet Cong suspect with a gunshot to the head. This became one of the most famous images of the war in Vietnam and had tremendous effect on international and  American public opinion regarding the war. (1968)
1-Feb 7,000 march to protest KKK in Greensboro, North Carolina. (1980)
1-Feb President George Bush & Russian President Boris Yeltsin declare an official end to  Cold War (1992)
1-Feb Two Native American activists, Eddie Hatcher & Tim Jacobs,  occupy a newspaper office in Lumberton, North Carolina, to highlight  racism issues. (1988)
1-Feb Two-month campaign of Citizens Against War begins,  Belgrade, Serbia. (1992)
2-Feb Anthony Benezet refuses to pay taxes to support Revolutionary War. (1779)
2-Feb The first of well over 400,000 Mexican-Americans, many US citizens living here as long as 40 years, are "repatriated" from the nation as Los Angeles Chicanos are deported to Mexico. (1931)
2-Feb First world disarmament convention opens, Geneva, Switzerland. (1932)
2-Feb First burning of  Australian military draft papers, Sydney. (1966)
2-Feb Soviet participation in the war in Afghanistan ended as Red Army troops withdrew from the capital city of Kabul. They left behind many of their arms for use by the Afghan government forces.  (1989)
2-Feb South African President deKlerk lifts ban on opposition groups;  African National Congress (ANC) is now legal. (1990)
3-Feb The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified and takes effect on March 30. It grants all citizens the right to vote regardless of race or color. (1870)
3-Feb Abigail Ashbrook of New Jersey refuses to pay taxes because she is denied the right to vote. (1893)
3-Feb Mass arrest of children demonstrating for Civil Rights, Selma, AL. (1965)
3-Feb More then 450,000 students, nearly half the citywide enrollment, boycott the New York City schools to protest segregation. (1964)
3-Feb Four decades of armed conflict in Vietnam officially ended when a cease-fire agreement signed in Paris the previous month came into effect.  Vietnam had endured almost uninterrupted hostility since 1945, when a war for independence from France was launched. A civil war between northern and southern regions of the country began after the country was divided by the Geneva Convention in 1954, with American military "advisors" arriving in 1955. Between 1969 and 1972, 107,504 Saigon government troops, approximately 400,000 North Vietnamese (DRV/NLF) soldiers and 15,315 American troops, died in combat.  The number of civilian deaths is unknown, although it has been estimated that 150,000 civilians died in South Vietnam for each year of American President Nixon's presidency. (1973)
3-Feb  President Nixon signs Endangered Species Act. (1973)
3-Feb President Bill Clinton lifted the trade embargo against Vietnam, which had been in place since the Vietnam war. (1994)
3-Feb Texas executed Karla Faye Tucker, the first female inmate to be put to death by the state in 135 years. (1998)
4-Feb The American Colonization Society founds the African state of Liberia in West Africa as a home for freed U.S. slaves. (1822)
4-Feb Rosa Parks is born (1913)
4-Feb Colombian government recognizes native rights to half its forest, 69,000 square miles  in the Amazon Basin, home to 55,000 indigenous tribal peoples. (1990)
4-Feb Start of week of marches for peace by thousands, Grozny, Chechnya. (1996)
5-Feb Roger Williams, defender of religious liberty and founder of Rhode Island, arrived in Boston. (1631)
5-Feb New Harmony Community of Equality founded in Indiana. (1826)
5-Feb Australian Prime Minister Robert Hawke refuses to allow the US to use  bases to monitor an MX missile test. (1985)
5-Feb 49 German troops conscientiously object to going to Turkey for Gulf War. (1991)
6-Feb Women over 30 allowed to vote in England. (1918)
6-Feb  US government requires the 110,000 Japanese-Americans imprisoned in internment camps to answer loyalty surveys. (1943)
6-Feb The civil rights jail-in movement begins when students in Rock Hill,  South Carolina are arrested & demand jail time rather than fines. (1961)
6-Feb Peace camp evicted by army at CIA base,  Molesworth, England. (1985) 
6-Feb Last person shot to death crossing the Berlin Wall, Chris Gueffroy. (1989)
7-Feb Lord Byron, in his first speech before the House of Lords, denounces a death penalty measure for rebellious laborers.(1812)
7-Feb "Negro History Week" was observed for the first time.  Today it has been lengthened, and is known as African-American history month. (1926)
7-Feb Autherine Lucy, the first black person admitted to the University of Alabama, was expelled after she accused school officials of conspiring in the riots that accompanied her court-ordered enrollment. (1956)
7-Feb Swiss women get the vote. (1971)
8-Feb Congress passed the Dawes Severalty Act, designed to end tribal life, which divided tribal lands into small plots for distribution to tribal members. American citizenship was granted to Native Americans who accepted their land and lived apart from the tribe. Congressed hoped that this would encourage Native Americans to "adopt the habits of civilized life." (1887)
8-Feb Longest Walk begins - Native American march from San Francisco to Washington, DC (1978)
8-Feb Four Black students killed, 50 wounded by police in Orangeburg, SC  (1968)
9-Feb Capt. Paul Cuffee and six other African-American residents of Massachussetts petition the state legislature for the right to vote; the court awards them equal rights. (1780)
9-Feb The "GI Joe" action doll debuts. (1964)
10-Feb In what was to be called "the second battle of the Alamo," preservationist Adina de Zavala barricades herself in the Long Barracks of the Alamo compound to prevent its destruction. (1908)
10-Feb Voice of Nuclear Disarmament pirate radio station begins operation off shore. (1961)
11-Feb Quakers and Mennonites petition Congress for Emancipation of slaves (1790)
11-Feb Vermont is the first state to abolish slavery. (1777)
11-Feb Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control. (1911)
11-Feb Students sat on the road at the Royal College in Nairobi, Kenya to draw attention to dangerous road crossing conditions. (1963)
11-Feb Treaty on non-militarization of sea bed signed, London, Moscow & Washington. (1971)
11-Feb Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in a South African prison (1990)
12-Feb NAACP founded. (1909)
12-Feb First peacetime draft card burning. (1947)
12-Feb The International Olympic Committee rejected a U.S. proposal to postpone or cancel the 1980 Summer Games or move the site from Moscow as a protest against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (1980)
12-Feb About 5,000 demonstrators march on Atlanta's State Capitol to protest the Confederate symbol on the Georgia state flag. (1993)
13-Feb The English Parliament enacted into law a Bill of Rights. (1689)
13-Feb Carrying huge photos of Napalmed Vietnamese children, 2,500 members of the group Women Strike for Peace storm the Pentagon, demanding to see "the generals who send our sons to Vietnam." (1967)
13-Feb Five soldiers arrested at pray-in for peace, Fort Jackson, South Carolina. (1968)
13-Feb US bombs an Iraqi air raid shelter, killing 334. (1991)
14-Feb Frederick Douglass, abolitionist leader, born into slavery. (1817)
14-Feb New Jersey becomes the first state to legalize unions. (1883)
14-Feb Founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), in Atlanta. (1957)
15-Feb New Jersey becomes the last northern state to abolish slavery. (1804)
15-Feb Susan B. Anthony born (1820)
16-Feb A pastoral letter was read in the majority of Norwegian pulpits telling the fascist regime to "end all which conflicts with God's holy arrangements regarding truth, justice, freedom of conscience and goodness.." (1941)
17-Feb Miguel de Cueno, a member of Columbus' second expedition, ships 550 captured Carib Indians to be slaves in Europe. 200 die at sea. (1495)
17-Feb Dutch  shipyard woprkers begin a two-day strike, which forced local German authorities to abandon plans to deport workers to Germany against their will. (1941)
17-Feb Between 150-200 Africans from the Kota Kota District of Nysaland went to the police station to protest 10 arrests for illegal acts and to demand that they be arrested also. (1959)
17-Feb The US Supreme Court issued its "one man, one vote" decision. (1964)
17-Feb First meeting of Britain's Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND). (1958)
18-Feb Pennsylvania Quakers make first formal protest against slavery (1688)
18-Feb Nonviolent resistance to Austrian oppression results in separate constitution, Hungary. (1867)
18-Feb Bertrand Russell, 89, leads march of 20,000 & sit-down of 5,000 in an anti-nuke rally outside  U.K. Defense  Ministry and is  jailed for 7 days. (1961)
18-Feb Five of the "Chicago Seven" (Rennie Davis, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, and Jerry Rubin) are  found guilty of crossing state lines to incite a riot at the 1968 Democratic convention, but are found not guilty of conspiracy. (1970)
19-Feb Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued his decree abolishing Serfdom. (1862)
19-Feb First Pan-African Congress organized by W.E.B. DuBois,  Paris, France (1919)
19-Feb Norwegian teachers begin successful nonviolent protest against Nazification  of schools (1942)
19-Feb Executive Order 9066, signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, ordered that all Japanese Americans (Nisei) be evacuated from the West Coast and be forced to live in concentration camps. (1942)
19-Feb 40,000 demonstrate against nuclear power, Brokdorf, West Germany. (1977)
19-Feb The U.S. Senate approves a treaty outlawing genocide, 37 years after the pact had first been submitted for ratification. (1986)
19-Feb 6,000 rally against Gulf War, Brisbane, Australia. (1991)
19-Feb A Superior Court judge ruled that a gay group has the right to march in South Boston's annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. (1993)
20-Feb 10 sleeping Indians scalped by soldiers in what will be New Hampshire for scalp bounty. First recorded instance of scalping. (1725)
20-Feb Dueling is outlawed in the District of Columbia. (1839)
20-Feb Utopian Society in Los Angeles starts chain-letter campaign informing US citizens that "Profit is the root of all evil." (1934)
20-Feb  US rejects Soviet proposal to ban nuclear weapons tests & deployment. (1956)
20-Feb In Greenwood, MS, SNCC Voter Registration headquarters & 4 Negro businesses burned. (1963)
20-Feb Faroes Islands' Parliament declares country a nuclear-free zone. (1984)
20-Feb Nearly 100,000 march in Paris against new anti-immigration bill sponsored by the far right. (1997)
21-Feb Beginning of the trial of Fr. Philip Berrigan & six other  activists (The "Harrisburg Seven") in Harrisburg, PA for an alleged plot to kidnap Henry Kissinger. Proceedings later end in a mistrial. (1972) 
21-Feb Vaclav Havel is jailed for antigovernment demonstrations. Later becomes be president of the Czech  Republic. (1989)
22-Feb Tennessee abolished slavery. (1865)
22-Feb Sophie Scholl, a 22-year-old "White Rose" activist at Munich  University, is executed after being convicted of urging students to rise  up & overthrow the Nazi government. (1943)
22-Feb U.S. President Richard Nixon met with Chinese Premier Mao Tse-tung in Peking. This bold foreign policy coup ended more that two decades of Sino-American hostility. (1972)
23-Feb Patrick Henry addresses a Virginia convention, saying "Give me liberty, or give me death."  (1775)
23-Feb American Anti-Vivisection Society formed in Pennsylvania. (1883)
23-Feb Dockers strike against Nazi persecution of Jews, Amsterdam. (1941)
23-Feb Wales becomes nuclear-free zone. (1982)
24-Feb Students at Madrid University in Spain, campaigning for an independent student union, conducted a silent march then sat down at the police barriers which blocked their way. (1965)
24-Feb District 1199 Health Care Workers becomes first U.S. labor union to oppose war in Vietnam. (1965)
24-Feb A congressional commission release a report condemning the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II,  calling it a "grave injustice." (1983)
25-Feb Samuel Colt receives a patent for his revolver. (1836)
25-Feb Some released conscientious objectors  return government pay for non-combatant services. (1919)
25-Feb British volunteers organize nonviolent "Peace Army" to attempt to intervene in fighting in China. (1932)
26-Feb A one-day strike to protest the ill treatment of the Jews was called in Amsterdam. (1941)
25-Feb US Supreme Court voids Michigan law banning sale of books that might corrupt youth. (1957)
26-Feb Jimmie Lee Jackson was beaten and shot by state troopers as he tried to protect his grandfather and mother from a trooper attack on civil rights marchers, in Marion, Ala. (1965)
26-Feb West Virginia coal slag heap, which had doubled as a dam, suddenly collapses, flooding the 17-mile ling Buffalo Creek Valley. 118 die, 14 mining camps leveled, & 5,000 people left homeless. (1972) 
26-Feb Corazon Aquino assumes power after non-violent revolt deposes Marcos, Philippines (1986)
26-Feb 4,000 people picket outside NY's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel as President Lyndon Johnson receives the National  Freedom Award. (1966)
26-Feb International weapons inspection team, including Canadian MP Libby Davies, is not allowed to determine  the presence of weapons of mass destruction at the Bangor, WA, nuclear submarine base. (1998)
27-Feb Birthday of consumer activist Ralph Nader. (1927)
27-Feb Supreme Court outlaws sit-down strikes. (1939)
27-Feb Wharlest Jackson, the treasurer of the NAACP chapter in Natchez, Miss., was one of many blacks who received threatening Klan notices at his job. After Jackson was promoted to a position previously reserved for whites, a bomb was planted in his car. It exploded minutes after he left work one day, killing him instantly. (1967)
27-Feb American Indian Movement occupied  Wounded Knee, the site of the 1890 massacre  of Sioux men, women and children (1973)
28-Feb The Republican Party was organized. Their main platform was preventing an end to the expansion of slavery. (1854)
28-Feb U.S. Government seizes Black Hills from Lakota Sioux in violation of  treaty. (1877)
28-Feb 1,000 rally against war, Hyde Park,  London. (1937)
28-Feb Peace Memorial Day, also called 228 Memorial Day, in Taiwan, commemorating a 1947 incident of government oppression. (1947)
28-Feb England: Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) founded in London. (1958)
28-Feb Nevada-Semipalatnisk Movement to Stop All Nuclear Testing founded in USSR. (1989)
28-Feb NATO was involved in actual combat for the first timein its 45-year history when four U.S. fighter planes operating under NATO auspices shot down four Serb planes that'd violated the U.N. no-fly zone in central Bosnia. (1994)
28-Feb The Brady Gun Law goes into effect. (1994)
28-Feb Bowing to international pressure, Jorg Haider resigned as leader of Austria's anti-immigrant Freedom Party. Haider had come under scrutiny for his reported admiration of Hitler when his party was included in a government coalition. (2000)
29-Feb The National Advisory Commission of Civil Disorders (Kerner Commission) warned that racism was causing America to move "toward two societies, one black, one white - separate but unequal" (1968)
29-Feb South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu and other religious leaders arrested near Parliament with a petition to end apartheid (1988) 
MARCH
1-Mar In Salem, Massachusetts, the witch trials began. (1691)
1-Mar Pennsylvania abolishes slavery. (1780)
1-Mar First U.S. Census count includes slave & free Negroes. Indians  were not included. (1790)
1-Mar President Kennedy established the Peace Corps. (1961)
1-Mar Nuclear Free Pacific Day to commemorate 2nd US hydrogen bomb dropped on Bikini Atoll. (1954)
1-Mar Civil Rights Act enacted in US. (1875)
1-Mar International Day of the Seal to promote awareness of the seal's peril. (since 1983)
1-Mar Chicana Welfare Rights Organization is formed, with Alicia Escalante as director. (1968)
1-Mar Women for Peace protest against militarism, Belgrade & Ljubljana, Yugoslavia. (1991)
1-Mar 15,000 demonstrate in Lunesburg against shipment of French nuclear waste to site in Gorleben. (1997)
2-Mar Congress allows railroad companies blanket approval for  rights- of-way through Indian lands. (1899)
2-Mar Months before Rosa Parks, teenager Claudette Colvin is arrested in  Montgomery, Alabama for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white person. (1955)
2-Mar Native Americans, organized by the  National Indian Youth Council, protest the denial of treaty rights by fishing in defiance of state law.  (1964)
3-Mar First U.S. draft law passes. Contains a clause providing draft exemption in exchange for a $300 -- a sum which only the rich could afford to pay. (1863)
3-Mar Congress declares that  all Native Americans are "wards of state," nullifying all treaties. (1871)
3-Mar Over 5,000 women march on Washington to demand right to vote. (1913)
3-Mar Village Council in Inuit town of Point Hope, in  northwestern Alaska, objects in a letter to President Kennedy to chain explosion of five  atomic bombs in nearby above-ground "Project Chariot" tests. (1961)
3-Mar Chicano students walk out of Los Angeles high schools protesting racist policies. (1968)
3-Mar Navajo & Hopi religious leaders request halt in construction  of ski resort in the San Francisco Peaks, northern Arizona. (1981)
4-Mar Suffragists, walking single file in Knightsbridge, London, smash every window they pass to protest government inaction. (1912)
4-Mar Union of Concerned Scientists founded. (1969)
4-Mar 40,000 demonstrate against uranium enrichment  plant, Almelo, Netherlands. (1978)
5-Mar A nuclear non-proliferation treaty went into effect after 43  nations ratified it. (1970)
5-Mar Ukraine, voluntarily agreeing to give up nuclear weapons, begins transfer of  its nuclear stockpile to Russia. (1994)
6-Mar Mexican troops defeat foreign slaveholders and mercenaries at the Alamo. (1836)
6-Mar The Dred Scott decision is handed down by the Supreme Court. It ruled that African-Americans are not full citizens, and an escaped slave could not sue for his freedom. (1857)
6-Mar Susan B. Anthony & more than 100 other suffragists present President Chester Arthur with a  demand that he support women's right to vote. (1884)
6-Mar Muhammad Ali is ordered by the Selective Service to be inducted. He refuses, citing his religious beliefs preclude him from killing others. (1967)
6-Mar In Palestine, hundreds demonstrate for an end to all violence. (1996)
7-Mar A march by civil rights demonstrators in Selma, AL, was broken up by state troopers and a sheriff's posse. (1965)
7-Mar  Federal Court rules  that a peace group must have the same   access to students at high school career days as military recruiters. (1988)
7-Mar Activists sit in to protest refusal of the Albany (New York) City Council to pass legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. (1988)
7-Mar 500 women march on the National Palace in Guatemala City.in a commemoration of state violence against women.  (1996)
8-Mar Thousands of workers in the NY needle trades (primarily  women) demonstrate & begin a strike for higher wages, shorter  workday & an end to child labor. Becomes the basis for International Women's Day. (1908)
8-Mar International Women's Day. (Since 1945)
8-Mar World Peace Council launches drive to ban all nuclear  weapons. (1955)
8-Mar First U.S. Combat troops enter Vietnam.  (1965)
8-Mar The Anti Apartheid movement held a mass lobby of the House of Commons in London to push for a firm stand against the government of South Africa. (1965)
8-Apr 40,000 rally against war in Lebanon, organized by Peace Now, in Tel Aviv, Israel. (1983)
8-Apr La Ragnatela (Spider's Web) Women's Peace Camp created at  Comiso, Sicily, Italy, the first overseas site for U.S. cruise missiles. (1983)
8-Apr Women from Eastern & Western Europe invite all citizens to  sign petition for denuclearization. (1985)
9-Mar U.S. Supreme Court frees slaves who seized slave ship Amisted in 1839. (1841)
9-Mar "Foodless Lunch" to publicize the plight of the hungry people of Europe held at  Waldorf hotel in London. (1945)
9-Mar The Supreme Court issues its New York Times vs. Sullivan decision, which said public officials who charged they'd been libeled could not recover damages for a report related to their official duties unless they proved actual malice on the part of the news organization. (1964)
9-Mar CBS cancels the Smothers Brothers Hour after they refuse to censor a comment made by Joan Baez. She wanted to dedicate her song to her husband, David, who was about to go to  jail for objecting to the draft. (1969)
10-Mar Slavery abolished in China (1910)
10-Mar Harriet Tubman Day, on the anniversary of her death in 1913  to honor her work freeing slaves. (1913)
10-Mar 500,000 demonstrate against affiliation with NATO, Madrid, Spain (1986)
10-Mar Women resist mobilization of kinsmen, Tresnjevac, Serbia. (1992)
11-Mar Gandhi's Salt March begins, from Ahmadabad to Delhi, in protest against salt tax. (1930)
11-Mar The Rev. James Reeb, a Unitarian minister from Boston, was among many white clergyman who joined the Selma marchers after the attack by state  troopers at the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Reeb was beaten to death by white men while he walked down a Selma, Ala. street. (1965)
11-Mar Cesar Chavez ends 23-day fast for US farm workers. (1976)
11-Mar  Beginning of 10 days of direct actions at Nevada Test Site which result in over 2,200 arrests, the largest number of arrests at a  political protest outside Washington, D.C. in  U.S. history. (1988)
12-Mar Maximilian, a Christian, beheaded by Romans for refusing military service, Thevesta, N. Africa. (295)
12-Mar The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) wins Lawrence, MA  "Bread & Roses" textile strike after nine weeks involving 32,000 strikers. (1912)
12-Mar Ann Frank dies at Bergen-Belsen. (1945)
12-Mar New York becomes the first state to prohibit discrimination by race & creed in employment. (1945)
12-Mar Nearly a hundred Congressional  Representatives & Senators sign the "Southern Manifesto," vowing to fight the Supreme Court school desegregation decision. (1956) 
12-Mar 300 women workers stage slow-down at Control Data in Seoul, Korea,  protesting the firing of their union president. (1982)
12-Mar Pope John Paul II asks God's forgiveness for the sins of Roman Catholics through the ages, including wrongs inflicted on Jews, women and minorities. (2000)
13-Mar First contingent of 14,030 Navajo reach Fort Sumner, New  Mexico during the Long Walk of the Navajo, a 400-mile forced march  in which thousands died. (1864)
13-Mar Pax Christi founded, France. (1945)
13-Mar Kitty Genovese stabbed to death in Queens, New York while Winston Mosley rapes & fatally stabs her in three separate attacks occurring over a period of more than half an hour. Although 38 people  witness some or all of the crime, as Genovese cried for help, no one  called for help until she was already dead, 35 minutes after the assault begins. (1964)
13-Mar Clouds of nerve gas drift outside the Army's Dugway  Proving Grounds in Utah, poisoning 6,400 sheep in nearby Skull Valley. (1968)
14-Mar Peace activist and scientist Albert Einstein born in Ulm, Germany. (1879)
14-Mar National Civil Liberties Council founded in England. (1934)
14-Mar Sixteen disabled rights activists arrested at the U.S. Capitol demanding passage of what would become the Americans With Disabilities Act. (1990)
15-Mar First federal women's suffrage amendment ever introduced in U.S. Congress. (1869)
15-Mar  Finland became the first European country to allow women to vote. (1907)
15-Mar Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia (1938)
15-Mar 78 protesters arrested during a second attempt by Native American activists to occupy Fort Lawton, demanding that Seattle give the unused facility back to Native Americans. (1970)
15-Mar Activists across Britain stage supermarket protests against genetically engineered foods. (1997)
15-Mar In a 14-page statement, the Vatican apologized for not doing more to prevent the murders of millions of Jews at the hands of the Nazis. (1998)
16-Mar The first newspaper edited for and by African-Americans, Freedom's Journal, is published in New York. (1827)
16-Mar Freedom of Information Day, on the anniversary of the birth of former president James Madison, who helped draft the Bill of Rights to the US Constitution. (1751)
16-Mar War Resisters International founded. (1921)
16-Mar My Lai Massacre (1968)
17-Mar In London, at the largest Vietnam antiwar march in Britain to date, 25,000  people attempt to storm the American Embassy at Grosvenor Square. (1968)
17-Mar 3,000 Ethiopian women workers march for equal pay & better labor conditions. (1974)
17-Mar 30,000 march in Villahermosa, Mexico, in support of a  campaign to blockade state-owned oil wells that had displaced thousands of poor people. (1996)
18-Mar Tolpuddle Martyrs banished to Australia for union activities. (1843)
18-Mar Beginning of Paris Commune. (1871)
18-Mar 202 African Americans sailed from Savannah, GA to make a new home in Monrovia, Liberia, an African colony formed by freed slaves. (1895)
18-Mar Algeria becomes an independent nation after 130 years of coloniual rule. (1962)
18-Mar The Supreme Court rules on Gideon v. Wainwright, holding states must supply free legal counsel to all poor persons facing criminal charges.(1963)
18-Mar The first big oil spill: US supertanker "Torrey Canyon" runs  aground off Land's End, Cornwall, England, releasing 119,000 tons of oil. (1967)
19-Mar  50 Greenwich Village folk artists protest Pete Seeger's blacklisting from the television show "Hootenanny." (1963)
19-Mar 45 Moroccan students began a sit-in and 24-hour fast at the Moroccan Embassy in Moscow to protest death sentnces and severe imprisonments of alleged antigovernment plotters in Morocco. (1964)
19-Mar 43 arrested at Chase Manhattan Bank in NYC, protesting loans to South Africa  (1965)
19-Mar 200 women seize the New York offices of "Ladies Home Journal," demanding what they call a "Women's Liberated Journal." (1970)
19-Mar Cyprus: 4,500 join Women's Walk Home nonviolent crossing of Green Line partition. (1989)
19-Mar 50,000 march in Amsterdam to protest US deployment of the neutron bomb in Europe.  (1978)
20-Mar Switzerland declares perpetual neutrality (1815)
20-Mar Harriet Beecher Stowe's influential novel about slavery, Uncle Tom's Cabin, is first published. (1852)
20-Mar Selma to Montgomery march begins. (1965)
20-Mar Johann Sebastian Bach born. (1685)
20-Mar In Australia 150,000 (1% of population) demonstrate in anti-nuclear rallies. (1983)
21-Mar A Hatfield marries a McCoy, ends long feud in West Virginia. (1891)
21-Mar 69 killed in Sharpeville massacre by South African police. (1960)
21-Mar Viola Liuzzo murdered while transporting civil rights workers after the Selma-to-Montgomery march. (1965)
21-Mar International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, United Nations (since 1966)
21-Mar Proctor & Gamble Company accidentally ejects 5,000 gallons of soybean oil into the Chicago River, reducing the local percentage of dissolved oxygen (necessary for marine
life respiration) to zero. (1969)
21-Mar The newly wed John Lennon & Yoko Ono begin their famous "bed-in for peace" at the Amsterdam Hilton. (1969)
21-Mar Menomonee activists take over courthouse in Kenosha, Wisc., demanding authorities investigate  the beating of two women. (1977)
21-Mar Ploughshares Two disable U.S. F-111 bomber, Upper Heyford, England. (1990)
21-Mar The state of Mississippi belatedly ratifies the 13th amendment to the US Constitution outlawing slavery. (1990)
22-Mar The Pilgrims and Massasoit Indians agree on a league of friendship. (1621)
22-Mar Slavery is abolished in Puerto Rico. (1873)
22-Mar Equal Rights Amendment passed by Congress. (1974)
22-Mar 30,000 march in Washington, DC against draft registration.  (1980)
22-Mar A boat piled with 3,168 tons of  garbage begins a  162-day, 6,000-mile search for a port willing to take its load. After being rebuffed by 6 states & 3 countries,  New York City agrees to burn the trash. (1987)
23-Mar Trial of 101 Wobblies (Industrial Workers of the World; IWW)  begins in Chicago, for opposition to World War I. (1918)
23-Mar The U.S. government begins moving native-born  Americans of Japanese ancestry from their West Coast homes to imprisonment in detention centers. (1942)
23-Mar Archbishop Romero assassinated, El Salvador (1980)
23-Mar New Zealand: One thousand boats demonstrate against arrival of U.S.S.  Queenfish, Auckland. (1984)
24-Mar Willi Leddra executed in New England for being a Quaker. (1661)
24-Mar Canadian women win the right to vote. (1918)
24-Mar 1,172 arrested in sit-down against nuclear weapons, Parliament Square, London, England. (1964) 
24-Mar First teach-in to oppose the Vietnam War held at University of Michigan  (1965)
24-Mar Martin Luther King, Jr., publicly announced his strong opposition to the Vietnam War. (1967)
24-Mar US and NATO begin 78 days of bombing in Yugoslavia (1999)
24-Mar The Exxon Valdez runs aground (1989)
25-Mar Toronto printers strike for the 9-hour day -- the first major strike in Canada. (1872)
25-Mar Coxey's "Army" heads peacefully from Ohio for Washington DC, demanding economic reform. (1894)
25-Mar Triangle shirtwaist fire kills 145 in New York City,stirring public outrage and spurs workplace safety reform.(1911)
25-Mar Sisterhood of International Peace founded in Australia. (1915)
25-Mar Viola Gregg Liuzo, a housewife and mother from Detroit, drove alone to Alabama to help with the Selma march after seeing televised reports of the attack at the Edmund Pettus Bridge. She was driving marchers back to Selma  from Montgomery when she was shot and killed by a Klansmen in a passing car. (1965)
25-Mar Britain abolished the slave trade. (1807)
25-Mar 30,000 in Children's March for Survival, Washington, D.C., protesting welfare cuts. (1972)
26-Mar First Jews Boarded on Trains for Auschwitz. (1942)
26-Mar Over 50,000 march in Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade in New York City. (1966)
26-Mar New York City Central Park Love-In, 10,000 show up. (1967)
26-Mar John & Yoko Ono-Lennon start seven day bed-in against the Vietnam War. (1969)
26-Mar 500 fast against construction of nuclear reactors, Switzerland. (1978)
26-Mar Israeli-Egyptian Peace Agreement signed (1979)
26-Mar US Supreme Court upholds a ruling that an Oklahoma law permitting the dismissal of teachers for speaking out on gay rights is unconstitutional. (1986)
26-Mar More than 3,000 people flee ethnic violence in Burundi, Africa. (1995)
27-Mar Blacks stage ride-ins on Charleston, SC street cars; 2 months later, railway company integrates. (1867)
27-Mar 20,000 Buddhists in silent march for peace, Hue, South Vietnam. (1966)
27-Mar The first Chicano Youth Liberation Conference is held by the Crusade for Justice;   the poet known as Alurista presents his poem on the myth of Aztlán, which captures the imagination of the conference. (1969)
27-Mar Nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island, PA. (1979)
28-Mar NY State abolished slavery. (1799)
28-Mar Canada: 2,000 demonstrate against conscription, in Quebec. (1918)
28-Mar 300 arrested in sit-down protest at U.S. Air Force headquarters, Ruislip.  (1964)
28-Mar Martin Luther King, Jr.calls for boycott of Alabama. (1965)
28-Mar US Senators Frank Church & George McGovern come out against the Vietnam War.  (1965)
28-Mar Spanish university students march against fascist government of Generalissimo Franco. (1968)
28-Mar Martin Luther King, Jr., leads a march by striking sanitation workers in Memphis, Tenn. Violence at the march persuades King to return to Memphis the following week. (1968)
28-Mar In the worst nuclear disaster in US history, a Three Mile Island cooling unit fails, leading to a meltdown that uncovers the reactor's core. (1979)
29-Mar First American forestry legislation enacted, Plymouth Colony. (1626)
29-Mar African-American men gain right to vote, 15th Amendment.  (1870)
29-Mar Black leaders protest the showing of D. W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation, scheduled to open at the Rialto Theatre in Charleston on April 1, on the grounds it violated a 1919 state law prohibiting any entertainment which demeaned another race. (1925)
29-Mar Nicaragua: Vietnam Veterans For Peace, marching from Jinotega, reach Wicuili. (1987)
30-Mar Closure of shops in protest against Rowlatt Bills, which ruled that dangerous' persons could be held in jail without trial or legal representation in a court of law begins, New Delhi. (1919)
30-Mar After years of struggle and a nationwide boycott, the United Farm Workers sign the first table-grape contract with two of California's largest grape growers. (1970)
30-Mar In the Philippines, 10,000 demonstrate against Marcos. (1978)
30-Mar 80,000 demonstrate against nuclear power, Wackersdorf, Germany. (1980)
31-Mar 10-hour workday established for federal public works employees.  (1840)
31-Mar Dalai Lama Begins Exile. (1959)
31-Mar Cesar Chavez born. (1927)
31-Mar Gandhi begins nonviolent campaign for temple entry, Vykom. (1924)
31-Mar Jews Expelled from Spain. (1492)
31-Mar 2,500 Berkeley students turn in draft cards. (1970)
31-Mar 300,000 demonstrate in peace rallies throughout Australia. (1985)
31-Mar Five Plowshares activists hammer missile launching cones on nuclear Navy ship, Milwaukee.  (1991)
31-Mar Four East Timorese arrested in Warton, at the British Aerospace factory where Indonesian Hawk fighter jets, used in the ongoing occupation & genocide of their homeland, are built.  (1997)
31-Mar President Lyndon Johnson announces he will not seek reelection, orders partial bombing halt in Vietnam & appoints Averell Harriman to seek negotiated peace talks with North Vietnam. (1968)
APRIL
1-Apr Diggers occupy Saint George's Hill, seizing land to hold in common & to plant. (1649)
1-Apr Brook Farm, history's most famous utopian community, is founded near West Roxbury, Massachusetts. It's primary appeal was to young Bostonians who shrink from the materialism of American life. (1841)
1-Apr Michigan becomes first state to abolish the death penalty. (1847)
1-Apr US Congress overrides President Andrew Johnson's veto of Civil Rights Bill, gives equal rights to all men born in the US except Indians. (1866)
1-Apr Gandhi ends salt march by illegally collecting salt from the sea. (1930)
1-Apr 500 school children, most with haggard faces & in tattered clothes, paraded through Chicago's downtown section to the Board of Education offices to demand that the school system provide them with food. (1932)
1-Apr Protesters at Greenham Common form a human chain 14 miles long to oppose missiles. (1983)
1-Apr South Africa: boycott of segregated schools begins. (1955)
1-Apr The Pilgrim-Wampanoag Peace Treaty is signed. (1621)
1-Apr Environmental Protection Agency orders end to dumping of sludge off the New Jersey coast. (1985)
2-Apr A demonstration of 10,000 liberals, in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, protesting the re-election of General Bernardo Reyes as state governor, were fired on by federales under the command of Reyes himself. 15 protesters were killed & many more wounded. (1903)
2-Apr Jeannette Rankin, (R-MT) the first woman ever elected to Congress, took her seat. (1917)
2-Apr Nearly 100 student from 19 states attend workshop at Highlander School; Guy Carawan teaches them 1930s labor songs: "We Shall Not Be Moved," "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize," "This Little Light of Mine," "We Shall Overcome." (1960)
2-Apr 100,000 Vietnamese demonstrate in Da Nang against U.S. & South Vietnamese governments. (1966)
2-Apr Massachusetts enacts a law which exempts its citizens from having  to fight in an undeclared war. (1970)
2-Apr President Reagan authorizes much broader powers for the government to hide/withhold information on citizens on "national security" grounds. (1982)
3-Apr Three day, fifty mile peace march from Trafalgar Square to Aldermaston, Berkshire begins to protest Britain's development of nuclear weaponry; first of many. (1958)
3-Apr Martin Luther King, Jr., launches voter registration drive in Birmingham, Alabama. Police Chief "Bull" Connor responds with fire hoses & attack dogs. (1963)
3-Apr 700 in Budget Day protest against taxation for nuclear arms, House of Commons, London. (1963)
3-Apr Martin Luther King, Jr. "I've been to the mountaintop" speech delivered.  (1968)
4-Apr 4,000 begin first of what would become eleven consecutive annual Easter protest marches from London to Aldermaston AWRE spy base in England. (1958)
4-Apr Martin Luther King, Jr., preaches against Vietnam War & calls for common cause between civil rights & anti-war movements, Riverside Church, New York City. (1967)
4-Apr Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated. (1968)
4-Apr CBS-TV touches off censorship controversy by its cancellation of the irreverent & anti-war "The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour." (1964)
4-Apr Henry Cisneros becomes mayor of San Antonio, Texas; the first Mexican-American elected mayor of a major U.S. city. (1981)
4-Apr Columbia University students occupy Hamilton Hall to demand South African divestment (1985)
5-Apr On Easter Monday, 100 Sinn Fein prisoners at Mountjoy Gaol began a mass hunger strike, demanding that they be treated as political prisoners or released. The were set free ten days later. (1920)
5-Apr Nuclear free zone declared by Dublin City Council. (1982)
5-Apr Solidarity granted legal status in Poland (1989)
5-Apr Nonviolent demonstration against war, Parliament building, Sarajevo. (1992)
5-Apr 54 arrested in Good Friday protest at Livermore Nuclear Weapons Laboratory, Livermore, California. (1996)
6-Apr First Major Slave Rebellion in the Colonies, New York (1712)
6-Apr Hot Springs, Arkansas professional baseball team is voted out of the Class C Cotton States League after the club refuses to cancel contracts with two black pitchers had hired. (1953)
6-Apr Tens of thousands protesting Vietnam War jeer Vice President Humphrey in West Berlin, West Germany. (1967)
6-Apr 11 arrested at main post office near Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C., for attempting to mail needed medical supplies to Iraq in defiance of U.S.-led  embargo. (1996)
7-Apr World Health Day (since 1948)
7-Apr Start of a 90-day genocide in Rwanda which left 500,000 people dead. Commemorated by prayer vigils in Rwanda. (1994)
8-Apr Paul Robeson born. (1898)
8-Apr Marian Anderson performs a concert at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington after she is denied the use of Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution. (1939)
8-Apr Women in Black demonstrate in solidarity with their Serbian sisters, Lund, Sweden. (1993)
9-Apr First freedom ride, "Journey of Reconciliation,"  sponsored by CORE and FOR. (1947)
9-Apr Members of Big Stone Cree end a 250 mile march to Edmonton to highlight economic plight of Big Stone Cree in northern Alberta. (1981)
10-Apr 1st ghetto, Jews are compelled to live in specific area of Venice. (1516)
10-Apr The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is incorporated. (1866)
10-Apr Nebraskans planted more than a million trees in celebration of the first Arbor Day. (1872)
10-Apr US troops liberate Nazi concentration camp at Buchenwald, Germany (1945)
10-Apr Nat "King" Cole is attacked and severely beaten by a group of racial segregationists while singing onstage at the Municipal  Hall in Birmingham, Alabama. (1956)
10-Apr About 500 factory workers making rockets in Stevenage, England, call a one-hour strike in support of unilateral renunciation of nuclear weapons. (1959)
10-Apr The United States and the Soviet Union join some 70 nations in signing an agreement banning biological warfare.(1972)
10-Apr UN approves world treaty assuring no civilians should be attacked with "napalm, mines or booby-traps." Defeated by US veto. (1981)
11-Apr  Pacem in Terris encyclical issued by Pope John XIII, calling for an end to the nuclear arms race. (1963)
11-Apr The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issues  regulations specifically prohibiting sexual harassment of workers by supervisors. (1980)
11-Apr Treaty of Pelindaba signed in Cairo, making Africa a nuclear-free continent and in theory making the entire southern hemisphere a nuclear-free zone. (1996)
12-Apr  60,000 students across the country took place in the first nation wide student strike. The protest was against participation in any war. (1937)
12-Apr  90-year-old Jeanette Rankin, the only member of Congress to vote against U.S. entry to both World Wars, leads 8,000 in protest of the Vietnam War in the Women's peace march on the Pentagon.(1971)
12-Apr First European anti-nuclear power demonstration, Fessenheim. (1971)
12-Apr At President Carter's request, the US Olympic Committee votes not to attend the Moscow Summer Olympics in retaliation for the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (1980)
13-Apr During Easter Week, Bishop Ambrose of Milan defied orders of the Imperial Roman government to surrender one of his churched, risking imprisonment and death, and with the church surrounded by troops, he continued to hold mass five times a day. The government capitualted. (385)
13-Apr Amritsar Massacre - 379 unarmed demonstrators killed by British in India (1919)
13-Apr Rachel Carson's book indicting the pesticide industry, Silent Spring, is published. (1962)
13-Apr Catholic Worker activists arrested in protest at World Bank headquarters, Washington DC. (1995)
14-Apr The first American society for the abolition of slavery is organized by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush. (1775)
14-Apr Police arrest over 100 Chicano farm workers for their union activities in Imperial Valley, California. Eight will be convicted of so-called "criminal syndicalism." (1930)
14-Apr Bruderhof, a  Christian peace church, raided by the Gestapo in Frankfurt. (1937)
14-Apr $675,000,000,000,000 suit is bought against General Motors for polluting the country. (1971)
14-Apr Denmark declares its ports nuclear-free. (1988)
15-Apr Jack Roosevelt Robinson becomes the first  African-American in the 20th Century to play in a Major  League Baseball game. (1947)
15-Apr Mass rally after release of 2,000 arrested for trying to hold Marathon peace march, Acropolis, Athens. (1963)
15-Apr Over 150 people burn draft cards - Vietnam War protest in Central Park, NYC (1967)
15-Apr Australia: 250,000 attend nuclear disarmament rallies across the country. (1984)
16-Apr US Senate ratifies Rush-Bagot amendment, disarming the US-Canadian border. (1818)
16-Apr Greek government bans Marathon Peace March, held yearly since 1961. (1967)
16-Apr Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) throw medals on Capitol steps (1971)
16-Apr Internal Revenue Service (IRS) estimates over 2,000 people openly refused to pay part or all of their income tax in protest over the war in Vietnam (1971)
16-Apr In Sweden, a bridge is blocked to stop boat loaded with guns for export. (1983)
17-Apr 22 arrested in Times Square for refusing to take part in civil defense drill, New York City. (1959)
17-Apr Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee founded, Raleigh, NC (1960)
17-Apr The Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)
17-Apr First national demonstration against Vietnam War, 25,000 march in Washington, DC  (1965)
18-Apr Bus companies in New York City agree to hire black workers after a four-week boycott. (1941)
18-Apr  "Choose Life" Plowshares action at Bofors weapons factory in Karlskoga, exporter of arms  to Indonesia. (1997)
19-Apr The American Revolution Begins (1775)
19-Apr Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Begins (1943)
19-Apr Costa Rica abolishes its army. (1948)
20-Apr Harriet Tubman begins her Underground Railroad. (1853)
20-Apr Ku Klux Klan Act Passed by Congress; authority to use military force against Klan (1871)
20-Apr Ludlow Massacre, troops kill 25 in attack on strikers living in tents in Colorado (1914)
20-Apr The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the use of busing to achieve racial desegregation in schools. (1971)
20-Apr Supreme Court rules that the state motto, "Live Free or Die", may be covered up on New Hampshire license  plates. (1977)
20-Apr Killings at Littleton, Colorado's Columbine High School, where two teenagers killed 12 fellow students, a teacher and themselves (1999)
21-Apr Chinese Students Begin Protests at Tiananmen Square (1989)
22-Apr First Earth Day observance (1970)
22-Apr The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum is dedicated in Washington, D.C., to honor the victims of Nazi extermination. (1993)
22-Apr 60,000 attend anti-war rock concert, Belgrade, Serbia. (1992)
23-Apr A 24-hour strike was held in Ireland to protest conscription without home rule. (1918)
23-Apr A Garhwali regiment refused to fire on peaceful demonstrators in Peshwar, India, an act for which its members were prosecuted. (1930)
23-Apr Army-McCarthy Hearings Begin (1953)
23-Apr William Lewis Moore, a postman from Baltimore, was shot and killed in  Attalla, Ala. during a one-man march against segregation. Moore had planned to deliver a letter to the governor of Mississippi urging an end to intolerance. (1963)
23-Apr Students at Columbia seize buildings to protest war research & razing Harlem for new gym (1968)
23-Apr In the final event of Operation Dewey Canyon Three, nearly 1,000 Vietnam War veterans return their combat medals  to the government. (1971)
23-Apr Nineteen demonstrators arrested in Kiev, during illegal anti-nuclear protest  marking 10th anniversary of Chernobyl. (1996)
24-Apr The Easter Uprising begins in Ireland. (1916)
24-Apr President Kennedy authorizes high-altitude testing of nuclear weapons, to determine whether missile-borne warheads can be used to black out military communications. (1962)
24-Apr 500,000 demonstrate against Vietnam War in Washington, DC (1971)
24-Apr International demonstrations against the plight of laboratory animals. (1983)
25-Apr Peaceful uprising by army and civilians ends 48 years of fascism in Portugal (1974)
25-Apr Women lay wreath for all women of all countries raped in war, Canberra, Australia. (1982)            
25-Apr Tens of thousands march on Washington, D.C. to demand an end to U.S. wars in Central America. (1987)
25-Apr 175 women arrested for marching to mourn the rape of women in war, Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. (1983)
25-Apr Over one million march in Washington, D.C., for gay, lesbian, bisexual, & transgender rights. (1993)
26-Apr Nazis Test Luftwaffe on Basque Town of Guernica (1937)
26-Apr Actress Vanessa Redgrave is among 826 British anti-nuclear protesters arrested during a London sit-down. (1961)
26-Apr  "Corky" Gonzales founds Crusade for Justice, Chicano activist group, Denver, CO (1966)
26-Apr National student strike against the war enlists as many as one million high school & college students across U.S. (1968)
26-Apr South Africa Holds first multiracial Elections (1994)
27-Apr The first strike for the 10-hour work-day, by carpenters in Boston. (1825)
27-Apr 16 pacifists, including A.J. Muste & Evan Thomas, refuse to register for the draft. (1942)
27-Apr Student protests in the wake of rigged elections force the resignation of US-backed President Syngman Rhee. (1960)
27-Apr 10,000 march in Washington, D.C., calling for impeachment of President Nixon. (1974)
27-Apr Zuni tribe files suit against U.S. government for New Mexico lands taken or damaged between 1846 - 1946. (1979)
27-Apr Navajos demonstrate as Gulf Oil sinks a uranium mine into sacred mountain (1979)
27-Apr CIA HQ in Langley, Virginia is blockaded & shut down by protesters of US policies in Central America & southern Africa.700 arrested. (1987)
27-Apr 30,000 rally in Germany for an end to nuclear power. (1996)
27-Apr Twenty-seven arrested at Watts Bar nuclear power plant, Spring City, Tennessee. (1996)
27-Apr Seventeen activists protesting continued funding of the School of the Americas are arrested for digging a mass grave on Pentagon grounds. (1997)
28-Apr Catholic workers refuse to leave park in Manhattan during nuclear civil defense drill (1961)
28-Apr Muhammad Ali refuses induction into the army and is stripped of his boxing title. (1967)
28-Apr Mothers hold first rally for the disappeared at Plaza de la Maya, Buenos Aires (1977)
28-Apr At Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility, near Denver, over 5,000 protest and 284 arrested for blocking railroad tracks entering the plant. (1978)
28-Apr Sixty-one arrested for dismantling railroad tracks leading out of Gundremmingen nuclear power station, Bavaria, Germany. (1996) 
29-Apr Women's International League for Peace and Freedom founded, The Hague. (1915)
29-Apr American soldiers liberate the Nazi concentration camp in Dachau, Germany. (1945)
29-Apr 826 arrested in London rally against nuclear weapons (1961)
29-Apr 10,000 demonstrate against nuclear power plant expansion, Windscale, Cumbria, England. (1978)
29-Apr Wrecking cranes begin tearing down the section of the Berlin Wall surrounding the Brandenburg Gate, the wall's most famous section. (1990)
29-Apr In Seoul, Korea, three men are arrested for protesting a nuclear power plant under construction. (1996)
30-Apr American Friends Service Committee founded. (1917)
30-Apr 1,415 arrested in occupation of Seabrook nuclear power plant, New Hampshire (1977)
30-Apr About 120 activists arrested over the next eight days in Washington, D.C., in support  of a White House fast by Sister Diana Ortiz. Ortiz was kidnapped, tortured, & raped by US-trained & supported Guatemalan Army officers in 1989; she was fasting to demand that the US government release information on her assailants. (1996)
MAY
1-May Mother Jones (born Mary Harris), Irish-American anti-war activist & labor radical, born in Cork, Ireland. (1830)
1-May International Workers Day (since 1886)
1-May Catholic Worker newspaper founded by Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin. (1933)
1-May Glenn Taylor, Idaho Senator, arrested in  Birmingham, Alabama for trying to enter a meeting through a door marked "for Negroes". (1948)
1-May "Educational television Act", P.L. 87-447, is signed into law. (1962)
1-May Second Factory for Peace opens, Onllwyn, Dulais Valley, Wales. (1965) 
1-May 500,000 Vietnamese march for end of war. (1966)
1-May Soviet youths openly defied  police  & danced the twist in Moscow's Red Square during May Day celebrations. (1967)
1-May Beginning of five days of anti-war May Day protests in Washington, D.C., resulting in over 14,000 arrests--the largest mass civil disobedience in U.S. history. (1971)
1-May 24-hour occupation of Seabrook (NH) nuclear power site results in 1,415 arrests. The action, sponsored by Clamshell Alliance, becomes a model for anti-nuclear direct actions across the country. (1971)
1-May Day of resistance & protest against Falklands War. (1982)
1-May One million South Africans strike against apartheid in COSATU strike. (1986)
1-May Marchers in Quito protest "disappeared people". (1993)
1-May Rally to Save Ancient Forests in Eugene, Oregon as logging season begins. (1999)
2-May Indian Parliament forbids discrimination based on caste. (1955)
2-May Poor People's Campaign March on Washington, DC (1968)
2-May Hungary begins dismantling 150-mile-long fence on Austrian-Hungarian border. (1989)
3-May Pete Seeger is born in New York City. (1919)
3-May Through May 12; British General Strike, an outgrowth of unsatisfied claims of coal miners, evolved into a test of powers between workers and the government. (1936)
3-May US: War resistor Igal Roodenko declares his refusal to work  until  the hunger strike of Stanley Murphy & Lou Taylor in Danbury Prison was ended. Four days later it was, & he went back to his duties "until the next time." (1943)
3-May In Birmingham, Alabama, "Bull" Connor orders fire houses & dogs turned on children marching out of the 16th St Baptist Church to keep them from marching out of the "Negro section". (1963)
3-May Students take over Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois), demanding African-oriented curriculum. (1968)
3-May The Nixon administration arrests nearly 13,000 anti-war protesters who disrupt Monday morning rush hour in Washington. (1971)
3-May National Public Radio premieres. (1971)
3-May 60,000 march on Pentagon to end military involvement in El Salvador (1980)
4-May First Freedom Riders' interstate bus integration attempt, Washington to New Orleans (1961)
4-May Four Kent State students killed, 13 wounded by National Guard, in Kent, OH  (1970)
4-May 30,000 students march for democracy to Tienanmen Square, Beijing. (1989)
4-May  Kampuchea (Cambodia): Dhammayietra, walk for peace, to Phnom Penh, begins, Siem Reap. (1993)
5-May Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution ratified, which outlawed slavery (1865)
5-May Congress passes the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act, which required Chinese in the United States to be registered or face deportation. (1892)
5-May US: Biology teacher John T. Scopes arrested for teaching the  theory of evolution in a Tennessee school, a violation of state law. (1925)
5-May 231 military induction orders burned, Los Angeles. (1969)
5-May 1,500 gather in Livermore, Calif. to protest nuclear research laboratory run by the Univ. of California. (1979)
5-May Bobby Sands, IRA member, dies in prison from hunger strike (1980)
5-May Over 1 million Sicilians, 1/5 of the population, have signed a petition against US base at Comiso. (1983)
5-May Last U.S. cruise missile leaves Greenham Common Air Base, site of a decade of strident women's anti-nuclear protests. (1991)
5-May Mothers of soldiers demand return of sons from extra-territorial fronts, Belgrade, Serbia. (1992) 
6-May Alexander Berkman starts the No Conscription League. (1916)
6-May Mohandas Gandhi released from his last imprisonment, India. (1944)
6-May Congressional hearings begin on ratification of Equal Rights Amendment  (ERA) to the U.S. Constitution. (1970)
6-May Two African  American students are murdered by government troops at Jackson State University  in Mississippi. The two students were watching anti-Vietnam War demonstrators from a nearby dormitory tower.(1970)
6-May Demonstrations against Pacific nuclear tests in 14 cities across France. (1973)
6-May 415 arrested at proposed nuclear site in Seabrook, NH  (1977)
6-May 125,000 rally in Washington, D.C. to oppose nuclear power. (1979)
7-May William Penn begins monthly meetings for Blacks advocating emancipation. (1700)
7-May Protestant mob in Philadelphia, shouting "Kill them! Kill them!" burns down over 30  homes in the predominantly Irish suburb of Kensington. (1844)
7-May The Rev. George Lee, one of the first black people registered to vote in Humphreys County and who used his pulpit and his printing press to urge others to vote, was murdered in Belzoni, Miss. (1955)
7-May "Bloody Sunday" in Selma, Alabama as state troopers  attack civil rights marchers.(1965)
7-May American veterans of the Vietnam War reached an out-of-court settlement with seven  chemical companies in their class-action suit relating to the use of herbicide "Agent Orange." (1984)
7-May City of Philadelphia bombs house of radical black group MOVE, killing 11 & destroying 62 others homes in neighborhood. (1985)
7-May Water cannon used on 15,000 protesters against import of French nuclear waste to Gorleben, Germany. (1996)
8-May U.S. Peace Society founded. (1828)
8-May Founding of Chartist movement for British workers' rights. (1838)
8-May Gandhi begins 31-day fast in jail, India. (1933)
8-May The Department of Justice orders court action to halt racial segregation in hospitals built with federal funds. (1962) 
8-May An estimated 9,000,000 people participate in a ten-minute work stoppage to protest nuclear weapons, Belgium. (1962)
8-May Nguyen Thi Co immolates herself in protest of  Vietnam War. (1971)
9-May First Nazi-inspired mass public book-burning, Germany. (1933)
9-May Muhammad Ali stripped of his heavyweight boxing title after being indicted for refusing to  accept induction into the army. (1967)
9-May Five days after the Kent State killings, about 600 Canadian protesters deface the Peace Arch at the U.S.-Canadian border at Blaine, Washington. (1970)
9-May Network for deserters & conscientious objectors from former Yugoslavia established, Salzburg, Austria. (1993)
9-May In San Salvador six soldiers arrested in slaying of U.S. Church workers. (1996)
9-May Chinese people protest at U.S. embassies in Beijing & around the world after the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade is hit in a bungled NATO airstrike. (1999)
10-May Beginning of the Sepoy Rebellion in Meerat, India; becomes known as the Great Mutiny against British Imperial rule. (1857)
10-May Victoria Woodhull becomes the first woman nominated for the U.S. presidency, by the National Equal  Rights party. (1872)
10-May British government jails Tom Mann for six months for urging soldiers not to shoot striking workers.(1910)
10-May England: Dock workers refuse to load armaments for use by Allies against Russia.(1920)
10-May The South registers its first full year without any reported lynching.  (1940)
10-May Captain Howard Levy jailed three years for refusing to train U.S. soldiers for Vietnam. (1967)
10-May Peace talks begin between the US & North Vietnam. (1968)
10-May 50,000 march for passage of Equal Rights Amendment. (1980)
10-May Twenty thousand march in funeral procession for  slain protesters, San Salvador.(1980)
10-May World Court orders U.S. to stop mining of Nicaraguan harbors. (1984)
10-May  Federal judge in Salt Lake City, Utah finds the U.S. government negligent in its above-ground testing of nuclear weapons in Nevada from 1951 to 1962. (1980)
10-May Cree of northern Quebec file suit to stop construction of $7.5 billion Great Whale Project, a dam  so  massive it would have altered weather patterns in North America. After seven years of massive grass roots opposition,  Quebec government agreed in early 1996 to postpone it. (1989)
10-May Women resist mobilization of kinsmen, Tresnjevac, Serbia. (1992)
10-May 188 die, 469 injured in fire at Kader toy factory in Thailand, used by Hasbro & other US companies. Deaths were blamed on doors & windows locked to keep sweatshop workers on the job. (1993)
10-May Nelson Mandela inaugurated president of South Africa (1994)
11-May Beginning of Pullman Railroad Strike, Chicago, Illinois. The largest industrial strike to date in US history, eventually broken by federal government troops. (1894)
11-May 80,000 turn out in New York's Central Park to celebrate the end of the Vietnam War. (1975)
11-May March against black on black violence, Birmingham, England. (1996)
12-May Poor People's Campaign begins when contingents of the poor, mainly from the south, begin pitching "Ressurection City" in the vicinity of the Lincoln Memorial. It was dismantled by police on June 24. (1968)
12-May Gonzalo Arias chains himself to Spanish gate in protest of closure of Spain/Gibraltar frontier. (1975)
12-May Amy Eilberg is ordained in New York as the first woman  rabbi in the Conservative Jewish movement. (1985)
13-May Slavery abolished in Brazil (1888)
13-May President Theodore Roosevelt opened a conference on the conservation of  natural resources saying, "the natural resources of our country are in danger of exhaustion if we permit the old wasteful methods of exploiting them longer to continue," propelling conservation issues into the forefront of public consciousness. (1908)
13-May "We Want Beer" marches are held in cities all over America, with 15,000 unionized workers demonstrating in Detroit. Prohibition is repealed next year.  (1932)
13-May Natives of Marshall Islands plead for an end to H-Bomb testing. (1954)
13-May Anti-apartheid demonstrators sat down on the tennis court at Maserud Arena, Oslo, to protest a Davis Cup match between Norway and the all-white South African team. (1964)
13-May In the first action against violators of the desegregation guidelines of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, federal funding for education is denied to 12 school districts in the South. (1966)
13-May 250 Chicano students from Los Angeles colleges & universities meet to form the United Mexican American Students (UMAS). (1967)
13-May  Movement for a New Congress -- to elect peace candidates -- founded at Princeton University. (1970)
13-May Mohawk end three-year occupation of Ganienkeh "Land of Flint" in Adirondack Mountains, in exchange for 5,700 acres elsewhere in New York. (1977)
13-May Philadelphia police try to dislodge members of MOVE by firebombing, destroying 61 homes and killing 11 people (1985)
13-May Ecuador's government grants 148 native communities legal title to more than 3 million acres in the Amazon Basin. (1992)
14-May The Black Hawk War begins when untrained American recruits attack Sauk Indian peace envoys. (1832)
14-May First groups of WWII conscientious objectors (COs) ordered to report to camp at Patapsco, Maryland. (1941)
14-May Greyhound bus with the first group of Freedom Riders is bombed and burned near Anniston, Alabama. (1961)
14-May Police build fence around People's Park in Berkeley, California. (1969)
14-May Seminole tribes of Florida & Oklahoma are awarded $12.2 million for lands taken "under duress."  (1970)
14-May Hundreds of thousands participate in the Million Mom March for gun safety (2000)
15-May The U.S. Congress declared the transporting of African slaves to the United States to be a form of piracy. (1820)
15-May The National Woman Suffrage Association is formed with Elizabeth Stanton as its first president. (1869)
15-May Julia Ward Howe proposes a Mother's Day as a peace holiday (1882)
15-May International conscientious objectors day
15-May National Labor Relations Act passed, recognizing workers'  right to organize & bargain collectively.  (1935)
15-May First British H-Bomb test. (1957)
15-May Women in Madrid walked the Central Plaza to show solidarity with striking miners; 70 arrested. (1962)
15-May American Friends Service Committee, SANE, & Women March  for Peace sponsor a 10,000+ person anti-war picket at White House &  63,000+ rally at the Washington Monument with four other organizations. (1966)
15-May Buddhist altars placed in streets to stop troops arresting dissidents, South Vietnam. (1966)
15-May Several million students on U.S. campuses strike against Vietnam War (1970)
15-May Native American Rights Fund files suit on behalf of Hopi to prevent strip mining on sacred Black Mesa, Arizona. (1971)
15-May 40,000 demonstrate against military electronics fair, Hanover, West Germany. (1982)
15-May USSR begins withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan. (1988)
15-May Stone commemorating conscientious objectors unveiled, Tavistock Square, London. (1994)
16-May Denmark becomes the first country to outlaw the slave trade. (1792)
16-May The Sedition Act is passed, defining as criminal the direct advocacy of treason, and criticism of the Government, conscription, or the American flag. (1918)
16-May Nhat Chi Mai immolates herself in Saigon to protest the war. (1967)
16-May US Supreme Court rules trash may be searched without a warrant. (1988)
17-May First women's anti-slavery convention in Philadelphia, PA  (1838)
17-May Supreme Court endorsed ``separate but equal'' racial segregation with its Plessy vs Ferguson decision, a ruling that was overturned 58 years later.(1896)
17-May Following the relief of Mafeking, in South Africa, 26,000 Boer women & children die in the world's first concentration camps. (1900)
17-May Women's International League for Peace & Freedom formally established, Zurich, Switzerland. (1919)
17-May Supreme Court rules segregation in public schools unconstitutional in Brown vs. The Board of  Education (1954)
17-May Martin Luther King, Jr. leads 30,00 on a Prayer Pilgrimage to Washington D.C.to mark the third anniversary of Brown vs. Bd of Education decision. (1957)
17-May 9 activists burn draft files in Catonsville, MD (1968)
17-May 100 protesters stage a "die-in" in downtown Seattle to protest shipment   through Seattle of Army nerve gas being transported from Okinawa to the Umatilla Army Depot in eastern Oregon. (1970)
17-May Malawi, Africa holds first elections. (1994)
18-May Rhode Island becomes the first colony to abolish slavery. (1652)
18-May Birthday of Bertrand Russell, a leading figure in the British anti-nuclear movement. (1872)
18-May First celebration of International Goodwill Day (1925)
18-May President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Head Start Bill into law (1965)
18-May The Klamath tribe wins $4.1 million for loss of Oregon lands during fraudulent government surveys in 1880s. (1969)
18-May Margaret Kuhn founds Gray  Panthers to  protest discrimination against the elderly. (1972) 
18-May Silkwood vs. Kerr-McGee case establishes corporations are responsible for the people  they irradiate. (1979)
19-May Four thousand Mexican miners gather in Sonora, California, to protest the Foreign Miners' Tax, which was enacted to drive them from gold fields. (1850)
19-May Clara Barton founded the Red Cross (1881)
19-May The Battle of Matewan (W.Va.). (1920)
19-May U.S. Congressman Claude Fuller introduces a resolution requiring all Civil Service employees to "sing, write or recite the words  to the 'Star-Spangled Banner'" by memory. (1932)
19-May 10,000 participate in "No More War" march, New York City. (1934)
19-May Lillian Hellman advises the House Committee on Un-American Activities  (HUAC) that she refuses to testify against friends & associates, saying:  "I cannot & will not cut my conscience to fit this year's fashions." (1952)
19-May Two international human  rights workers, Mario Calderon & Elsa Alvarado, plus Alvarado's parents, are shot dead in Bogota by paramilitaries. (1997)
20-May John Stuart Mill's bill to permit women to vote was rejected by the British Parliament. (1867)
20-May White mob attacks "Freedom Riders" in Montgomery, Alabama. (1963)
20-May Arlington Street Unitarian-Universalist Church in Boston offers sanctuary to Robert Talmanson and William Chase, both wanted for acts of disobedience to military duty. (1968)
20-May Delegation of U.S. pacifists travels to Cuba to exchange children's art. 
20-May Pat Arrowsmith jailed for 1-1/2 years for leafleting soldiers about Northern Ireland. (1974)
20-May US Supreme Court rules that a Colorado state law prohibiting any legislation protection gays & lesbians against discrimination is unconstitutional. (1996)
20-May About 50 activists occupy & prematurely harvest a trial field of genetically engineered maize (corn), ruining the test. Schonfeld, Germany. (1997)
21-May With the betrothal of Henry VI, King of England to Catherine de Valois of France, England & France swear perpetual peace. (1420)
21-May 4,300 rally at Bangor Naval Base, Washington, to protest against nuclear sub USS  Trident. (1978)
21-May Members of American Indian Movement  (AIM) occupy Naval Air Station near Milwaukee,  Wisconsin. (1971)
21-May  US Senate approves $20 billion program to return US to  full-scale production of chemical & nerve-gas weapons. (1981)
21-May Kyrgystan announces plans to dismantle its army. (1993)
22-May Eugene V. Debs imprisoned for his role in the Pullman railway strike, Woodstock, Illinois. (1895)
22-May Premiere of Public Broadcasting System's  "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood". (1967)
23-May General Winfield Scott ordered the forced removal of the Cherokee Indians from the East to the "Indian Nation" (what is now Oklahoma). Approximately one forth of the 10,000 died on this cruel march called "The Trail of Tears". (1838)
23-May 300,000 participate in the third Marathon March for Peace & Justice. (1965)
23-May 10,000 march against Falklands/Malvinas War in London (1982)
23-May Maryland becomes the first state to ban the sale of cheap hand guns. (1988)
24-May The Virginia House of Burgesses declared this a day of "fasting, humiliation and prayer" in reaction to the British closure of the Port of Boston. (1774)
24-May British suffragist Dora Montefiore protests lack of women's vote by refusing to pay taxes  & barricading her house against bailiffs. (1906)
24-May In Bulgaria, a march against anti-Semitism leads to stop in Jewish deportations. (1943)
24-May International Women's Day for Disarmament (since 1981)
24-May More than  200,000 people participate in massive anti-nuclear demonstration in Tokyo. (1982)
24-May Largest national gathering of women in anti-nuclear demonstration, Auckland., NZ. (1984)
25-May African slaves in Massachussetts Bay petition the government for freedom as their natural right. (1774)
25-May First noncommercial educational television station-Houston, Texas (1953)
25-May The closing of schools to avoid desegregation is ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court, causing Prince Edward County, Va. to reopen and desegregate its schools. (1964)
26-May King Phillip III of Spain decrees non-Roman Catholic Indians can be legally enslaved. (1626)
26-May House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC), founded. (1938)
26-May A patent is filed in the U.S. for the H-Bomb. (1946)
26-May Anti Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty signed by US and USSR. (1972)
26-May 15,000 demonstrate for disarmament in New York City. (1978)
26-May 20,000 in Arab-Jewish peace rally, Tel Aviv, Israel. (1991)
26-May An estimated 7 million Americans participate in Hands Across America, forming a line across the country from Los Angeles to New York to bring attention to and raise money for the nation's hungry and homeless. (1986)
27-May The first recorded American execution of a "witch" took place in Salem, Massachusetts. (1647)
27-May Australia gives citizenship to aborigines. (1967)
27-May Nearly 20,000 rally in New York City to protest nuclear weapons. (1978)
27-May National plan of Reforestation for Peace begins, El Salvador. (1992)
28-May President Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act, requiring Eastern Indians to be resettled west of the Mississippi. (1830)
28-May The U.S. Attorney General decides it is legal for women to wear trousers. (1923)
28-May Seven women fast for 10 days, Springfield, Illinois, in support of ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment by the Illinois state legislature. (1982)
28-May "Child Abuse, Domestic Violence, Adoption and Family Services Act", P.L. 102-295, becomes law. (1992)
28-May President Clinton signs an amendment to Executive Order 11478 that "prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation" in the government. (1998)
28-May Amnesty International founded (1961)
29-May US  Supreme Court  rules organized  baseball is a sport  -- not a business -- & thus not subject  to antitrust laws. (1922)
29-May St. Augustine, Florida "night raiders" shower a car with bullets, narrowly missing an aide to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964)
29-May Poor Peoples' Campaign begins in Washington D.C. (1967)
29-May Guatemala: Troops massacre 100 campesinos protesting against eviction. Panzos, Alta Vehapaz.  (1978)
29-May Christic Institute files lawsuit charging US complicity in Contra assassination bombing at La Penca, Nicaragua, & the CIA role in smuggling cocaine into the US to fund Contra wars. (1986)
29-May U.S. Supreme Court rules Indian tribes do not possess authority to exercise criminal jurisdiction over anyone other than tribal members on their reservations. (1990)
30-May Thirteen black men burned at the stake, & 17 black men, two white men, & two white women hanged, for their roles in planning a slave revolt in New York City. (1741)
30-May Kansas-Nebraska Act repeals Missouri Compromise & opens Northern Territory to slavery. (1854)
30-May Memorial Day first observed when two women in Columbus, MS, placed flowers on both Confederate and Union graves. (1868)
30-May National Conference on the Negro convened, resulting in the formation of  the NAACP. (1909)
30-May Police kill 10 fleeing workers, wounded 30 more & beat 55 so badly they required hospitalization during the "Memorial Day Massacre" at the Republic Steel plant in south Chicago. (1937)
30-May San Antonio bureaucrats shut down the Chili Queens, now  memoiralized every year on Memorial Day. (1943)
30-May 5,000 attend three rallies in London for a constructive peace. (1945)
30-May Labor union ban begins in U.S. on French airlines & business mail in protest of French nuclear testing.  (1972)
31-May First of Hernando de Soto's conquistadors land on Florida coast. (1538)
31-May General Washington orders Iroquois suppressed. A scorched-earth policy, in which dozens of villages were burned,  follows. (1779)
31-May The Tulsa Race Riot (1921)
31-May Tax protester Lady Godiva rides naked through Coventry, England (1678)
31-May Supreme Court orders school integration "with all deliberate speed." (1955)
JUNE
1-Jun Mary Dyer hanged for nonviolent resistance to suppression of Quakers, Boston (1660)
1-Jun Sojourner Truth set out from New York on an historic journey across America, preaching about the evils of slavery and promoting women's rights. (1845)
1-Jun 80 militia men refuse to board train as reinforcement for U.S. invasion of Veracruz, Mexico. (1914)
1-Jun A Warsaw underground newspaper, the Liberty Brigade, makes public the news of the gassing of tens of thousands of Jews at Chelmno, a death camp in Poland-almost seven months after extermination of prisoners began.(1942)
1-Jun Sen. Margaret Chase Smith denounces Joseph McCarthy and his "red-baiting" tactics on the floor of the U.S. Senate, in a speech called "A Declaration of Conscience". (1950)
1-Jun 700 protest at White House against nuclear testing. (1958)
1-Jun 531, including NAACP Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins, arrested at a peaceful civil rights march in Jackson, Mississippi. (1963)
1-Jun U.S. Supreme Court bans formal prayers & religious exercises from public schools. (1963)
1-Jun First Buddhist monk, Quang Duc (73) immolates self in Vietnam. (1963)
1-Jun Vietnam Veterans Against War (VVAW) is formed. (1967)
1-Jun Brazilian government recognizes Indian right to remain in their territories. (1988)
1-Jun US and USSR signed an agreement to stop producing chemical weapons (1990)
1-Jun United Nations Earth Summit begins in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (1992)
2-Jun Harriet Tubman frees 750 slaves in raid. (1863)
2-Jun Second International Peace Conference opens, The Hague, Netherlands. (1907)
2-Jun IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) Mesabi Range strike. (1916)
2-Jun Congress granted US citizenship (8 U.S.C. §1401) to all American Indians. (1924)
2-Jun  US Brigadier General John Donaldson charged with murder & assault in connection with an incident involving eight South Vietnamese civilians. (1971)
2-Jun 10,000 Chinese  soldiers are blocked by 100,000  citizens protecting students   demonstrating for democracy in Tienanmen Square, Beijing. (1989)
3-Jun International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) founded. (1900)
3-Jun US Supreme Court rules race separation on buses unconstitutional. (1946)
3-Jun Conscientious objection legally recognized in Belgium. (1964)
3-Jun In Cincinnati, Ohio, Sally J. Priesand, 25, became the first woman in Reform Judaism to be ordained as a rabbi. (1972)
3-Jun Appeal court in England rules that war tax resistance unlawful. (1985)
4-Jun US constitution goes into effect. (1789)
4-Jun Anti-Saloon League formed in Ohio. (1893)
4-Jun Sweden passes legislation granting public employees right to collective bargaining. (1937)
4-Jun During what became known as the "Voyage of the Damned," the SS St. Louis, carrying more than 900 Jewish refugees from Germany, was turned away from the Florida coast. The ship, which was also denied permission to dock in Cuba, eventually returned to Europe; many of the refugees later died in Nazi concentration camps.(1939)
4-Jun  James Meredith, first black student at the  University of Mississippi, is shot & wounded by a  sniper while working on a voter registration drive, in a lone 220-mile "march against fear." (1966)
4-Jun International Day for Children as Victims of War (since 1982)
4-Jun The Sierra Club was incorporated in San Francisco. (1892)
4-Jun The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing women the right to vote, was passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification (1919)
4-Jun President Harry Truman signs into law the National School Lunch Act, P.L. 79-396. (1946)
4-Jun New Zealand passes legislation declaring itself nuclear-free. (1983)
4-Jun Demonstration against nuclear power, Cape Town, South Africa. (1983)
4-Jun India: Culmination of marches from around the state, activists protest US company Enron, building a   power station in the South Maharashtra region. 39  arrested. (1997)
5-Jun St. Boniface slain by Druids for chopping down sacred tree. (753)
5-Jun Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly began to appear in serial form in the Washington National  Era. (1851)
5-Jun The U.S. Supreme Court rules that there can be no segregation in railroad dining cars. (1950)
5-Jun Golden Rule crew sentenced to 60 days for sailing into Pacific A-bomb test site. (1958)
5-Jun Boxer Muhammed Ali is sentenced to five years in prison for refusing the military draft during Vietnam War era. (1967)
5-Jun 40 Chicanos stage armed raid on Tierra Armarilla, New Mexico. The group claims 2,500 square miles of territory in New Mexico, which they  say Spain granted their ancestors. (1967)
5-Jun World Environment Day, commemorating the opening of the U.N. Conference on Human Environment in Sweden (since 1972)
5-Jun Anti-herbicide activists burn logging equipment in Oregon. (1983)
5-Jun Chinese soldiers slaughter pro-democracy students at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China (1989)
5-Jun Thousands march in Germany to protest neo-Nazi violence. (1993)
6-Jun Congress passes a bill abolishing debtor's prisons in the  United States. (1798)
6-Jun London Peace Society forms. (1815)
6-Jun Birth day of Dalai Lama, Nobel Peace Prize  winner, Tibetan spiritual leader. (1936)
6-Jun George Orwell's 1984 is published. (1949)
6-Jun Robert F. Kennedy, Attorney General, assassinated. (1968)
6-Jun Comedian Dick Gregory begins hunger strike in Olympia, Washington jail after his arrest in support of Nisqually fishing  rights. (1968)
6-Jun Fundamentalist media  watchdog Donald Wildmon claims to have seen Mighty Mouse snorting  cocaine in a recent Saturday morning cartoon. Though animator Ralph Bakshi explains that Mickey was sniffing  flowers, the scene is cut from future broadcasts.  (1988)
6-Jun 40 Native Americans camp at sacred Black Hills site atop Mount Rushmore; 20 are arrested. (1971)
6-Jun Greenpeace officials announce at least 50 nuclear weapons & 9 nuclear reactors, the products of U.S. & Soviet naval accidents, were   lost on the ocean floor since World War II. (1989)
6-Jun Three Syracuse activists occupy local congressional offices to  protest forced U.S. repatriation of Haitian refugees. (1994)
7-Jun First Crusade reaches the walls of Jerusalem. (1099)
7-Jun Treaty of Tordesillas: the Pope divides the New World  between Spain & Portugal. (1409)
7-Jun The Pennsylvania Assembly bans the import of slaves in the colony. (1712)
7-Jun The Hawaiian Declaration of Rights is signed. (1839)
7-Jun In his first act of civil disobedience, Mohandas Gandhi refused to comply with racial segregation rules on a South African train and was forcibly ejected at Pietermaritzburg (1893)
7-Jun James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi, was shot by a sniper while on a lone "March Against Fear" through the South. (1966)
7-Jun Norway gains independence from Sweden by nonviolent means (1905)
7-Jun NY Times agrees to capitalize the n in "Negro." (1930)
7-Jun US Supreme Court holds "right of privacy" covers use of contraceptives. (1965)
7-Jun  Palestinian Liberation Organization announces its willingness to recognize Israel's right  to exist. (1988)
7-Jun Seven activists arrested outside the pro-nuclear Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, New Mexico, for passing out copies of the Bill of Rights. (1997)
8-Jun The British Parliament enacts legislation limiting working hours of women and children aged 13 to 18 to 10 per day (1847)
8-Jun Battle between the Colorado Militia & striking miners at Dunnville ends with six union members dead & 15 taken prisoner. 79 of the strikers were deported to Kansas two days later. (1904)
8-Jun U.S. Air Force Cpl. Fannie Mae Clackum sues to overturn her discharge on psychiatric evaluation of "latent homosexuality." (1956)
8-Jun  270  walk out of graduation ceremonies at NYU to protest the presentation of an honorary degree to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. (1966). 
8-Jun Two-thirds of the graduating class of Brown University turn their backs on Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, the graduation speaker. (1969)
8-Jun New York  bridge workers hopelessly snarled the city's traffic by leaving drawbridges open, the result of a  rejection by New York State of  their pension demands. (1971)
8-Jun  U.S. citizen Michael Devine kidnapped & murdered by CIA-paid Guatemalan military officials, led by ex-School of the Americas two-time  graduate Col. Julio Alpirez. (1990)
8-Jun Anti-genetic food activists play cricket using bioengineered potatoes previously scheduled for harvesting. (1997)
9-Jun English negotiate treaty with  Potomac River tribes; after a toast symbolizing eternal friendship, Chiskiack chief & 200 followers drop dead from poisoned wine. (1623)
9-Jun Arinell Ponder of SCLC & 5 students arrested & beaten for using white Trailways bus bathrooms, Winona, Miss. (1963)
9-Jun Spain legalizes political parties for first time in 37 years. (1976)
9-Jun Poland: Following General Jaruzelski's declaration of martial law, people in the city of Lodz  demonstrate their disgust with the official government television news by taking a daily promenade timed to coincide exactly with the  broadcast,  wearing their hats backwards. When the authorities shift  the hours of the Lodz curfew to make protest illegal, residents take  their televisions to the window at precisely the time the news begins &  blast out the newscast at full volume, into empty streets & at the  patrolling authorities. (1983)
9-Jun 150,000 march in London, England for nuclear disarmament, protest Cruise missiles. (1984)
9-Jun  Police ban vigil of Women in Black, Belgrade, Serbia. (1993)
10-Jun At Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, James Augustine Healy was ordained as the first African-American Roman Catholic priest. (1854)
10-Jun Women's Peace Crusade launched, Glasgow, Scotland. (1917)
10-Jun "Equal Pay Act of 1963" passed and signed into law; guarantees women equal pay for equal work (1963) 
10-Jun Chicago school segregation is protested by mass demonstrations. (1965)
10-Jun U.S. Claims Court upholds decision that Seminole tribes of Florida & Oklahoma have claims to lands covering much of the state of Florida. (1967)
10-Jun A twenty-one year old trade embargo with mainland China is lifted by President Nixon. (1971)
10-Jun Rockefeller  Commission report is released, detailing a secret CIA-sponsored domestic program, CHAOS,  including keeping records on 300,000 persons & groups, &  infiltration of agents & provocateurs into black, anti-war &  political movements in the US. (1975)
10-Jun Nelson Mandela's first prison writings smuggled out and made public (1980)
10-Jun 50,000 attend first March for the Animals in Washington, D.C. (1990)
11-Jun Canadian unions legalized. (1872)
11-Jun Birthday of Jeanette Rankin, pacifist, 1st US Congresswoman. (1880)
11-Jun SDS holds founding convention and issues Port Huron statement (1962)
11-Jun University of Alabama desegregated when Governor George Wallace, facing federalized Alabama National Guard troops,  ended his blockade of the University of   Alabama in Tuscaloosa and allowed two African-American students to enroll  (1963) 
11-Jun Nineteen-month occupation by Native American protesters of Alcatraz Island, in San Francisco Bay, ends. (1973)
11-Jun Supreme Court declares illegally obtained evidence may be admitted at trial if it could be proved that it  would have been discovered legally. (1984)
11-Jun 100,000 march from U.N. to Central Park during 3rd U.N. Special Session on Disarmament  (1988)
11-Jun Prairie Peace Park & Maze opens at Interstate 80 exit of Pleasant Dale, Nebraska. (1994)
12-Jun 260 people die in a mine disaster in Butte, Montana, sparking a strike of 14,000 people against unsafe labor conditions. (1917)
12-Jun In the driveway outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi, civil rights leader Medgar Evers was shot to death by white supremacist (1963)
12-Jun Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment for opposing apartheid  (1964)
12-Jun In the case of the Loving vs. Virginia Supreme Court,  the U.S. Supreme Court strikes down state laws which prohibit interracial marriages.(1967)
12-Jun One million rally in Central Park for nuclear disarmament; largest US peace demonstration (1982)
12-Jun 1,756 people arrested in 150 cities over two days for protests against U.S. arming & financing of Nicaraguan Contras. (1985)
13-Jun Wat Tyler revolt: Jack Straw & 30,000 peasants & poor city folk rebel, march  on London. (1381)
13-Jun The “Pentagon Papers” excerpted in the New York Times, give details of U.S. involvement in Vietnam from the end of World War II to 1968. (1971)
13-Jun In Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court rules that a  suspect must be read his rights by police before interrogation. (1966)                 
13-Jun Pentagon Papers are printed in the New York Times. (1971)
13-Jun The Sioux Nation is granted an award of $17.5 million  for land taken from them by the United States Government in  the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1877. (1979)
13-Jun 1,765 arrested in 150 cities protesting US aid to Nicaraguan Contras (1985)
14-Jun Society for Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace founded, London. (1816)
14-Jun  In "Taylor v. Mississippi", the U.S. Supreme Court rules that school children need not salute the U.S. flag if it is against  their religion to do so (1946)
14-Jun Women Against the Bomb delegation calls for complete nuclear disarmament during visit to Moscow. (1964)
14-Jun Child-care expert Dr. Benjamin Spock & three others convicted of conspiring to counsel draft evasion. (1968)
14-Jun The Environmental Protection Agency bans the use of the pesticide DDT. (1972)
14-Jun 1,653 arrested at U.S., USSR, French & Chinese Missions to United Nations, New York City, in "Blockade the Bombmakers" nuclear disarmament sit-ins. (1982)
14-Jun 60,000 march to Central Park to demand economic sanctions against South African apartheid regime  (1986)
15-Jun King John signs the Magna Carta at Runnymede, limiting the power of the English monarchy (1215)
15-Jun 44 nations meet in 2nd Hague Peace Conference (1907)
15-Jun CORE (Congress on Racial Equality) founded in Chicago (1943)
15-Jun US Supreme Court rules any individual may object to military service on ethical & moral grounds -- & need not base their moral  beliefs on an organized religion. (1970)
15-Jun US government obtains a four-day prior injunction  to prevent the New York Times from printing the Pentagon Papers. (1971)
15-Jun US Supreme Court rules TVA may not complete Tellico Dam based on the endangered Snail Darter. (1978)
15-Jun 450 occupy uranium mine for three days in anti-nuclear protest, Honeymoon, South Australia. (1982)
16-Jun Massachusetts enacts a law requiring Roman Catholic  priests to leave the colony within three months.(1700)
16-Jun Susan B. Anthony arrested for voting. (1873)
16-Jun 2,000 East Berlin workers passed in silent protest past the newly built Soviet Embassy in Under den Linden. (1953)
16-Jun Women & children encircle  Congress demanding an end to Vietnam  War, Washington D.C. (1972)
16-Jun Soweto massacre , 700 children killed for refusing to learn Afrikaans (1976) 
17-Jun Start of Cherokee Trail of Tears; 1,200-mile forced march to Oklahoma (1838)
17-Jun The Supreme Court struck down rules requiring the Lord's Prayer or Bible verses in public schools (1963)  
17-Jun The Supreme Court rules that prison conditions such as overcrowding, poor sanitation, and exposure to violence do not violate th 8th Amendment's prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment. (1991)
18-Jun  6,000 attend anti-conscription rally, Sydney, Australia. (1916)
18-Jun A. Philip Randolph & others meet with President Roosevelt about their proposed March on Washington  to  protest discrimination in war industries. A week later, Roosevelt  orders their desegregation. (1941)
18-Jun A Federal Court rules that an Arkansas attempt to close a school rather than desegregate it is unconstitutional. (1959)
18-Jun  3,000 blacks boycott Boston public school as a protest against defacto segregation. (1963)
18-Jun US Supreme Court bans racial discrimination in the sale & rental of housing. (1968
18-Jun US voting age lowered to 18. (1970)
18-Jun SALT II agreement to limit long-range missiles and bombers signed by Presidents Carter and Brezhnev. (1979)
18-Jun Europarliament calls for  abolition  of death penalty  throughout  Europe. (1981)
18-Jun Puget Sound Women's peace camp established at Bangor  nuclear submarine base in Washington state. (1983)
19-Jun More than two years after Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, Union soldiers, led by Major General Gordon Granger, landed at Galveston, TX, with news that the war had ended and all slaves were now free. Still celebrated as Juneteenth. (1865)
19-Jun Black community begins bus boycott in Baton Rouge, Louisiana -- two & a half years before the more famous Montgomery, Alabama protest. (1953)
19-Jun 1,000 landowners occupy key islands in protest  against French nuclear tests, Kwajalein Atoll, South Pacific. (1982)
19-Jun US Supreme  Court rules school  teaching evolution need not teach  creation. (1987)
20-Jun Striking African American auto workers attacked by National Workers League, KKK & armed white workers at Detroit's Bell  Isle amusement park, 34 people killed, 1,300 arrested in race riots. (1943)
20-Jun Taft-Hartley Labor Act, curbing strikes, is vetoed by  President Truman. Congress overrode the veto. (1943)
20-Jun Cold War prompts "hot  line" between Washington & Moscow. (1963)
20-Jun Muhammad Ali convicted of refusing to be drafted (1967)
20-Jun 2,500 arrested in two days during blockade of Lawrence  Livermore labs, California. (1982
21-Jun Galileo Galilei is forced by the Inquisition to "abjure, curse, & detest" his Copernican heliocentric views. (1623)
21-Jun US Constitution goes into effect. (1788)
21-Jun 11 "Molly Maguire" coal   miners are hanged by the state for the crime of attempting to organize laborers. (1877)
21-Jun Women's Sunday Suffrage rally draws 500,000 in London (1908)
21-Jun Nobel laureate Linus Pauling defies Congress by refusing to name signers of petitions calling for total halt of nuclear  weapons testing. (1960)
21-Jun  International Disarmament Assembly opens, Accra,  Ghana. (1962)
21-Jun Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner murdered while registering Blacks to vote in  MS (1964)
21-Jun US Supreme Court rules it's legal to burn the US flag as a political expression. (1989)
21-Jun 100,000 march in solidarity with striking newspaper labor  workers in Detroit. (1997)
22-Jun First General Peace Convention opens, London, England. (1843)
22-Jun African delegates, followed by delegates from many other countries, walk out of a United Nations United Labor Organization meeting in Geneva to protest Portugal's denial of independence to colonies and forced labor. (1966)
22-Jun The Cuyahoga River catches fire just downstream from Cleveland, Ohio & burns for 20 minutes. (1969)
22-Jun 8,000 peace protesters form 10-mile human chain around U.S. air base, Okinawa, Japan (1987)
23-Jun A treaty is signed between William Penn and the chiefs of the Lenni Lenape tribe in Shakamaxon, Pennsylvania. (1683)
23-Jun Life magazine publishes photos of South Vietnamese children running from napalm. (1972)
23-Jun Education Amendments of 1972 becomes law. Prohibits any discrimination at Educational institutions based on sex (1972)
23-Jun International Court of Justice grants injunction, requested by Australia & New Zealand governments, against French nuclear testing  in the South Pacific. (1973)
23-Jun 2,000 protest against arrival of nuclear warship USS  Kittyhawk in Fremantle, Australia. (1984)
24-Jun Margaret Brent urges women's vote before the Maryland Assembly. The shocked Assembly ejects her. (1647)
24-Jun Boston African-Americans hold the first of a series of meetings protesting Jim Crow schools.  (1844)
24-Jun Mrs. Herbert Hoover invited Mrs. DePriest, wife of the first African-American congressman from a northern state, to tea at the White House, creating a stir in Southern society. (1929)
24-Jun Conscientious objectors volunteer as guinea pigs for medical research. (1944)
24-Jun President Truman signs the Selective Service Act, creating a registration for all men from ages 18-25. (1948)
24-Jun During the Berlin Blockade imposed by the Soviet Union, which lasted until May 12 of the following year, the US and Great Britian flew unarmed supply planes into the German city devlivering food, fuel and other critical supplies. (1948)
24-Jun 323 arrested in 24-hour blockade of US bomber base, Greenham Common, England. (1962)
24-Jun 14,000 gather to protest proposed nuclear power plant at  Seabrook, New Hampshire. (1968)
24-Jun General Strike in El Salvador against the Death Squads (1980)
24-Jun Peaks for Peace commemorate dead of Hiroshima & Nagasaki bombings with a peace plaque at the summit of Ben Nevis, Scotland. (1983)
24-Jun Seven women arrested in Rochester, New York for conducting a topless picnic to protest local laws which allowed men --  but not women -- to be shirtless in public. (1986)
24-Jun After years of refusal, U.S. finally ratifies International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. (1994)
25-Jun Resisting the authority of  the US government efforts to herd them onto "reservations", Lakota, Cheyenne & Arapahoe tribes defeat  the U.S. Army at Little Big Horn, Montana.  (1876)
25-Jun The Fair Labor Standards Act sets the minimum wage at 25 cents per hour and prohibits child labor. (1938)
25-Jun The South African  Freedom Charter is adopted at the Congress of the People in Johannesburg. (1955) 
25-Jun Riots erupt in Saint Augustine, Fla., when a mob of 800 whites attacks  part of a parade of several hundred African-Americans participating in an   integration parade. (1964)
25-Jun Pan-American Health Organization reports that Central  American Indians have a worse diet than the pre-Columbian Mayans. (1968)
25-Jun Hundreds rally, Madrid, Spain, for an end to bullfighting. (1990)
26-Jun Mohandas Gandhi founds movement for Indian rights, South Africa. (1894)
26-Jun Pacifist & socialist organizer Eugene Debs is arrested for giving  an anti-war speech. Canton, Ohio. (1918)
26-Jun The National Firearms Act, the first  federal gun law, was signed into law. (1934)
26-Jun Shipyard workers in Amsterdam stage a "go home early" strike, sending a message to their Nazi occupiers that sine the Germans were not providing enough food they had to go home to tend their potato patches. (1944) 
26-Jun UN Charter signed by 50 nations in San Francisco. (1945)
26-Jun Workers in South Africa stagecd a one-day "stay at home" to protest the Group Areas Bill and to mourn the dead of the liberation struggle. (1950)
26-Jun Nonviolent campaign against apartheid begins; African  National Congress (ANC) begins its Defiance of Unjust Laws campaign. (1952)
26-Jun Albert Luthuli calls for bonfires & candles to symbolize sparks of freedom, South Africa. (1953)
26-Jun President Kennedy addresses 120,000 West Berliners and concludes his speech, "All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of  Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words 'Ich bin ein Berliner'." (1963)
26-Jun 200 protesting against state violence are killed by Somoza's U.S.-trained National Guard in Managua, Nicaragua. (1967)
26-Jun In commemoration of the 25th anniversary of the Stonewall Rebellion, over one million people march in New York City to celebrate & demand gay & lesbian  rights.(1994)
27-Jun Prudence Crandall, a white woman, arrested for  conducting an academy for black females at Canterbury, Conn. (1833)
27-Jun First pure food law enacted in US. (1848)
27-Jun Indian nationalists called for a social boycott of government officials, others known to have participated in atrocities and Indians who refused to join the noncooperation struggles to protest Gandhi's imprisonment.
27-Jun Stonewall rebellion, NYC, launches modern gay rights movement (1969)
27-Jun President Carter signs a measure that requires that approximately 4 million U.S. men age 19 to 20 register for the draft.(1980)
27-Jun World Court rules US-support for Nicaraguan "contras" violates international  law. (1986)
27-Jun Two Operation Homestead activists arrested in downtown Seattle, Wa.   for occupying the rooftop of a low-income housing building slated for demolition to make way for a parking lot. (1995)
28-Jun One-day strike by 50,000 German workers to free Socialist anti-war leader Karl Liebnecht, (1916)
28-Jun W.E.B. DuBois and other leaders organize silent parade against lynching of Blacks, NYC (1917)
28-Jun  Alien Registration (Smith) Act enacted. (1940)
29-Jun 7,000 Doukhobors stage mass  weapons-burning, Trans-Caucasia, Russian Empire.(1895)
29-Jun The South African parliament passed a bill excluding black, coloured (mixed race) and Indian
people from skilled or semi-skilled work. (1925)
29-Jun Mass "walk-on" (trespass) at chemical & biological warfare facility, Porton Down. (1963)
29-Jun In Furman v. Georgia, The Supreme Court rules that the death penalty -- as then employed by the states -- is unconstitutional.(1972)
30-Jun Cinque leads successful slave revolt on the ship Amistad. (1839)
30-Jun Gandhi's first arrest, in campaign for Indian equal rights in South Africa. (1914)
30-Jun United Nations intervention ends civil war in the Congo, Africa. (1964)
30-Jun First GIs, Fort Hood 3, refuse to be sent to Vietnam. (1966)
30-Jun 35,000 protest nuclear power at Diablo Canyon. (1970)
30-Jun The 29th Amendment to the US Constitution, lowering the voting age to 18 in all elections, was ratified (1971)
30-Jun U.S. Supreme Court upholds $122 million judgment to the Lakota (Sioux)  Nation for illegal taking of Black Hills, South Dakota. (1980)
30-Jun An English court seizes about $7,000 withheld war taxes from Peace Pledge  Union's bank account.  (1989)
JULY
1-Jul First Quakers arrive in America, having come to what will be Boston. (1656)
1-Jul  8000 anti-war marchers demonstrate in Boston. (1917)
1-Jul Guatemala's dictator of 14 years deposed by massive general strike (1945)
1-Jul 700 protest at White House against nuclear testing. (1958)
1-Jul 61 nations, including the United States and the Soviet Union, sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.(1968)
1-Jul Women Against Daddy Warbucks destroy 1-A files in eight New York City draft boards. (1970)
1-Jul Publication of first issue of  Ms. Magazine. (1972)
2-Jul New Jersey becomes the first Colony to grant women's suffrage.(1776)
2-Jul Mutiny on the Amistad slave ship (1839)
2-Jul U.S. President  Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law. (1964)
2-Jul The Supreme Court rules that Capital Punishment does not constitute "cruel and unusual punishment". (1976)
2-Jul Vermont becomes first American colony to abolish slavery (1777)
3-Jul Children strike in Paterson, New Jersey, for an 11-hour work day and a 6-day work week. (1835)
3-Jul Birthday of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, author (Herland); feminist and a founder of the Women's Peace Party. (1860)
4-Jul Slavery outlawed in New York State (1827)
4-Jul Henry David Thoreau moves into his shack on Walden Pond for a 26 month stay. (1845)
4-Jul Freedom of Information Act, P.L. 89-487, becomes law (1966)
4-Jul British House of Lords votes to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults. (1967)
4-Jul "Give Peace a Chance" by Plastic Ono Band is released in UK (1969)
4-Jul Women's Peace Camp begins outside Romulus, NY at Seneca Army Depot (1983)
6-Jul In one of the worst cases of union-busting, a fierce battle breaks out between Homestead Steel employees and Pinkerton detectives. 20 are killed. (1892)
6-Jul In Nazi-occupied Holland, thirteen-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family were forced to take refuge in a secret sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse (1942)
6-Jul Irene Morgan, a 28-year-old black woman, refused to move to the back of the bus. Her appeal, entered after her conviction for breaking a Virginia law barring integrated seating, resulted in a 7-1 Supreme Court decision barring segregation in interstate commerce. (1944) 
6-Jul Students try to block troop trains in Berkeley, CA (1965)
7-Jul First military draft by US (exemptions cost $100). (1863)
7-Jul Pugwash scientists hold first peace conference.(1957)
7-Jul 2,000 Native American activists and anti-nuclear demonstrators march through the Black Hills (South Dakota) to protest the development of uranium mines in sacred lands. (1979)
7-Jul The first of many syringes, blood  vials & other hospital souvenirs -- some  contaminated with the AIDS virus -- washes ashore on Long Island, forcing the closing of miles of beaches in the midst of the  worst East Coast heat wave of the decade. (1988)
7-Jul Peace march to Presidential residence blockaded by police, Belgrade, Serbia. (1992)
7-Jul Cambodian parliament outlaws Khmer Rouge. (1994)
8-Jul In the battle of Otompan, Otumba, Mexico, Spaniards slay 20,000 Aztecs. (1520)
8-Jul First anthracite coal strike in US. (1842)
8-Jul Taos Pueblo recover sacred Blue Lake from Federal government. (1970)
8-Jul Congress enacts the Hopi-Navajo [forced] Relocation Act to "solve" the problem of impeded access to coal deposits at Big Mountain, Arizona. Dine (Navajo) families at Big Mountain continue their resistance to this day. (1980)
8-Jul Regional Council demands removal of all nuclear weapons and  bases, Strathclyde, Scotland. (1981)
8-Jul International Court Of Justice declares that in almost all circumstances use of nuclear weapons is illegal. (1996)
8-Jul First arrests in Britain for pulling up Genetically Engineered crops. Five women pull up almost 200 plants at Monsanto's Model Farm, Watlington in Oxfordshire. Thames Valley. (1998)
9-Jul Rudolf II, Emperor of Bohemia, grants freedom of worship in his domain. (1569)
9-Jul Einstein, Russell and 7 other scientists warn that choice is between war and human survival (1955)
9-Jul Novelist Dashiell Hammett sentenced, choosing six months' imprisonment rather than co-operate with the US House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities' inquiries into domestic "subversion" (1951)
9-Jul 100,000 march in Washington, D.C. for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment. (1978)
10-Jul US government rejects Soviet proposal of complete & general disarmament. (1962)
10-Jul Greenpeace flagship, The Rainbow Warrior, bombed in New Zealand by French government (1987)
11-Jul World Population Day, sponsored by the United Nations to focus attendion on population issues.
11-Jul League of Nations Union mass rally for disarmament, Albert Hall, London, England. (1931)
11-Jul Founding of American Indian Movement (AIM), Minneapolis, MN (1968)
11-Jul U.S. votes to impose sanctions against South Africa in protest of its apartheid policy. (1985)
12-Jul Henry David Thoreau born (1817)
12-Jul Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson calls up National Guard to stop rioting in Cicero,  where a mob of 3,500 tries to keep an African-American family from moving into the city. (1951)
13-Jul Anti-draft riots in NYC, against the implementation of the first wartime draft of U.S. civilian (1863)
13-Jul Live Aid concert raises $75 million for agricultural and technical assistance to Africa (1985) 
13-Jul 7,000 Anti-Roads protestors take to the roads, take over the A41 motorway in London to stage a huge all-day street party. (1996)
14-Jul Sedition Act made it a crime to write, utter or publish "any false, scandalous, & malicious" statements about the government, Congress, or the President. (1798)
14-Jul International Peace Garden established on U.S./Canadian border at Pembina, North Dakota. (1932)
14-Jul Black Americans in Harlem, NY, begin demonstrations in support of Ethiopian struggle against Italian fascism. (1935)
14-Jul Indian Claims Commission upholds Indian claim for the first time in its history, awarding $3.5 million to the Choctaw & Chickasaw for lands illegally taken at the end of the Civil War. (1950)
14-Jul Clean Air Act becomes law (1955)
14-Jul 118 people arrested at the site of the Jabiluka uranium mine in World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park, land of the Mirrar aboriginal people, in tropical Northern Territory, Australia. (1998)
14-Jul 28  Food Not Bombs & homeless activists arrested in San Francisco's United Nations Plaza during a non-violent demonstration seeking to reclaim public space & parks made inaccessible to homeless people. (1998)
15-Jul Capture of Jerusalem (first Crusade) 10,000 massacred. (1097)
15-Jul The Spanish Inquisition, begun in 1478, is ended (1834)
15-Jul 52 Nobel laureates, led by Albert Einstein, call on all states to renounce force as an act of policy. Mainau, West Germany. (1955)
15-Jul Oglala Sioux seize area on Sheep Mountain, North Dakota, demanding its return. (1970)
15-Jul The Longest Walk, transcontinental walk for Native American justice, arrives in Washington D.C. from Alcatraz Island, California, with 30,000 marchers. (1978)
15-Jul Joan Baez presents a free concert dedicated to nonviolence in Paris on the Place de la Concorde attended by 120,000. (1983)
15-Jul Animal Rights activists begin sit-in at National Institute of Health to protest funding of the Experimental Head Injury Lab at the University of Pennsylvania. (1985)
15-Jul Center for Anti-War Action founded, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. (1991)
15-Jul "Yellow ribbon" rally against ethnic cleansing, Belgrade. (1992)
15-Jul Cease-fire agreed to in Rwanda after genocidal tribal violence.  (1992)
16-Jul 2,400 Cherokee shipped out of Montgomery, Alabama, for the Arkansas River, as part of the forced relocation of all Indians in U.S. to territories west of the Mississippi River.(1835)
16-Jul "Fat Boy," the first experimental atomic bomb, exploded in Alamogordo, NM (1945)
16-Jul An interracial group of 75 from the Youth Chapter of the Chicago NAACP conducted a wade-in at Rainbow Beach on the South Shore of Lake Michigan to counter segregation on the beach. (1961)
16-Jul In anti-nuclear protest, 10,000 form human chain linking U.S. & Soviet embassies, London, England. (1983)
17-Jul Tibet abolishes serfdom. (1959)
17-Jul First aerial military bombing of a civilian population, by a U.S. Marine squadron of seven airplanes at Ocatal, Nicaragua, kills 300. (1927)
17-Jul First land titles distributed to Nicaraguan peasants under land reform. (1981)
17-Jul End of a 500-person occupation against nuclear waste dumping, Gorleben, West  Germany. (1983)
18-Jul Britain introduces voting by secret ballot. (1872)
18-Jul Nelson Mandela born (1918)
18-Jul Riots break out in Harlem after a police officer shoots an  unarmed 15-year-old black youth, in the first of a series of summer racial riots in    Brooklyn,  Rochester, Paterson, Elizabeth, Newark, Philadelphia &  suburban Chicago. (1964)
18-Jul Hung jury in the trial of Dave Forbes of Boston Bruins, first athlete  indicted for excessive violence during play. (1975)
19-Jul Women's Rights Convention launches U.S. feminist movement, Seneca Falls, NY (1848)
19-Jul Surrender of Sitting Bull & 186 followers, crossing the Canadian border into US; Army breaks its amnesty promise & jails him at Fort Randall, Dakota Territory. (1881)
19-Jul Congress outlaws crossing state lines to "incite to riot." (1967)
19-Jul Ten thousand fish killed when Mutrie Motor Transportation, Inc. of Waltham,  Massachusetts, spills a highly toxic substance into the Charles River. (1969)
19-Jul Martha Tranquill jailed nine months for tax refusal over Vietnam War,Sacramento, California. (1974)
19-Jul Clinton announces his "Don't Ask Don't Tell" policy regarding gays in the military (1993)
19-Jul A federal administrative law judge ordered white supremacist Ryan Wilson to pay $1.1 million in damages to fair housing advocate Bonnie Jouhari and her daughter. The decision stems from threats made  against Jouhari by Wilson and his Philadelphia neo-Nazi group ALPA HQ. (2000)
20-Jul General Custer & first official  exploring expedition enters Black Hills with 110 wagons & 1,000 men, in direct  violation of treaty of 1868 that barred whites from sacred hills. (1874)
20-Jul The first Black Power conference held in Newark, NJ, calling on black people in the US "to unite, to recognize their heritage and to build a sense of community." (1967)
20-Jul National Chicano Moratorium Committee march & rally draw 5,000 people in Houston. (1970)
20-Jul First labor contract in the history of the federal government signed by postal unions & the Postal Service through the collective bargaining process. (1971)
21-Jul Philip "The Fair's" secret commission results in the arrest of & confiscation of all the goods & money of, every Jew in France. (1721)
21-Jul George Carlin charged with disorderly conduct & profanity after performing his famous "7 Words" routine at  Summerfest in Milwaukee. (1972)
21-Jul Martial law lifted in Poland. (1983)
21-Jul 15,000 hold a memorial vigil in Milan after the murder of an anti-Mafia leader. (1992)
22-Jul Friendly Association for Peace founded, Philadelphia. (1756)
22-Jul About 1,250 people took part in an effort to blok public construction in Brooklyn until more African-Americans and Puerto Ricans were hired. More than 200 obstructors were arrested, including 10 ministers. (1963)
22-Jul The “Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act”, Pub. L. 100-77, permits the donation of Federal surplus personal property to tax-exempt providers of assistance to homeless individuals.(1988) 
22-Jul Month-long hunger strike of women against the Mafia begins, Palermo, Sicily.  (1992)
23-Jul In an atmosphere of popular rebellion againt the French King, the commons refused to leave the chamber when directed by Louis XVI, claiming that "no one can give orders to the assembled nation." (1789)
23-Jul Henry David Thoreau jailed for refusal to pay poll tax, which led to his writing "Civil Disobedience." (1846) 
24-Jul U.S. Army marches to Salt Lake City for a planned invasion to drive out the Mormons (1847) 
24-Jul President Herbert Hoover proclaimed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which renounced war as an instrument of foreign policy. (1929)
24-Jul Canadians and Americans cross border at Thousand Islands Bridge to protest nuclear weapons and border harassment of peace activists. (1983) 
24-Jul 10,000 form a human chain for a cleaner North Sea, West Germany. (1983)
25-Jul Manifesto of nonviolent resistance to Nazi occupation, Norway.  (1942)
25-Jul The National Security Act of 1947 is passed by Congress, uniting the armed forces under control of the National Military Establishment, called the Department of Defense. (1947)
25-Jul Test Ban Treaty signed by U.S.S.R., U.S. and Britain (1963)
26-Jul Slavery abolished in all British dominions. (1833)
26-Jul  U.S. Women win vote (1920)
26-Jul President Truman ends segregation in the Armed Forces. (1948)
26-Jul Americans with Disabilities Act signed into law. (1990)
27-Jul U.S. & Mexico in joint resolution outlaw enslavement of remaining Navajo. (1869)
27-Jul Chicago race riots: A black youth crosses an unseen "color line" at the 29th Street Beach & was drowned by rock-throwing whites. 28 people eventually killed, & at least 500 were injured. (1919)
Four women arrested for a Plowshares action, pouring their own blood on weaponry at the Naval Submarine Base at Groton, Conn. the morning of the launch of the last new Trident submarine, the U.S.S. Louisiana. (1996)
28-Jul The 14th Amendment is declared ratified by the states.(1868)
28-Jul Military gas and bayonet "bonus marchers," WW I vets (1934)
28-Jul San Francisco becomes the first U.S. city to ban the sale and possession of hand guns. (1982)
29-Jul Grape growers sign with UFW; end of first grape boycott (1970)
29-Jul Supreme Court rules death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment by a 5-4 vote  (1972)
30-Jul Birthday of radical economist Thorsten Veblen author of "The Theory of the Leisure Class." (1857)
31-Jul The National Association of Colored Women was founded in Washington D.C. by Mary Church Terrell. (1896)
31-Jul 25,000 people rally for freedom from South African colonial rule, Namibia (1986)
AUGUST
1-Aug As World War I begins,  Harry Hodgkin, a British Quaker and Friedrich Siegmund-Schulte, a German Lutheran pastor, attending a conference in Germany, pledged to continue sowing the "seeds of peace and love, no matter what the future might bring," germinating the idea of the Fellowship of Reconciliation. (1914)
1-Aug Gandhi begins movement of noncooperation, India. (1920)
1-Aug Britain bans cigarette advertising from commercial television. (1965)
1-Aug Helsinki Accords on human  rights & East-West relations formed. (1975)
1-Aug First occupation of Seabrook, New Hampshire nuclear reactor site. (1976)
1-Aug Blockade of nuclear missile site begins, Grossenstringen, West Germany. (1982)
1-Aug US resumes making chemical weapons after 14 year's suspension. (1983)
2-Aug Albert Einstein urges all scientists to refuse military work. (1931)
2-Aug Mounted police break up anti-Korean War protest in Union Square, N.Y.C. (1950)
3-Aug Congress passes the first law to restrict immigration in the United States. (1882)
3-Aug Four die in the "Wheatland riots" when police fire into a  crowd of California farmworkers trying to organize for better working conditions. (1913)
3-Aug Federal Communications Commission (FCC) upholds a political candidate's right to broadcast paid commercials with racist content if such broadcast presents no danger of violence or incitement to violence. (1972)
3-Aug Eight women arrested in Motherpeace action, U.S.-Canada war test site, Vancouver, B.C. (1986)
3-Aug 143 resisters publicly refuse military call-up, South Africa. (1988)
4-Aug Trial of John Peter Zenger on charges of libel (1735)
4-Aug In France, an elected Assembly abolished the privileges of the nobility. (1789)
4-Aug US Marines leave Nicaragua after 13-year occupation.(1925)
4-Aug First International Nonviolent March leaves for Verdun from Metz, France. (1976)
4-Aug Peace Ribbon made by thousands of women wrapped around Pentagon. (1985)
4-Aug Congress votes $20,000 to each Japanese-American interned during WW II. (1988)
5-Aug US, USSR and Great Britain sign treaty banning nuclear testing in atmosphere (1963)
6-Aug At Auburn Prison in New York, William Kemmler becomes the first person to be executed in the electric chair. (1890)
6-Aug Hiroshima Peace Day-atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima by "Enola Gay" (1945)
6-Aug Voting Rights Act signed. (1965)
6-Aug US imposes sanctions of Iraq. (1990)
7-Aug Ralph Bunche born, the first African-American to hold a key position at the State Department, and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating the 1948 Arab-Israeli truce. (1904) 
7-Aug The first photograph of Earth taken from space is sent by the Explorer VI satellite. (1959)
7-Aug Arias Peace Plan signed by five Central American nations (1987)
8-Aug At the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, President Chester Arthur meets with Shoshoni Chief Washaki, becoming the first president to officially visit a Native American tribe. (1883)
9-Aug Edge Pillock in Burlington County, New Jersey, becomes the first Native American reservation in the United States. (1758)
9-Aug Nagasaki Day
11-Aug Oliver Wendell Holmes is appointed to the Supreme Court. He wrote, "...The right to swing your arm ends where my nose begins." (1902)
11-Aug 19 conscientious objectors, prisoners at the Federal Corrections Institution in Danbury, Connecticut, begin a 133-day strike to protest racial segregation at meals. (1943)
11-Aug Riots broke out in the Watts district of Los Angles. (1965)
12-Aug Thousands demonstrate in Philadelphia in support of Mumia Abu-Jamal, on death row since 1982, in the largest anti-death penalty rally in the U.S. (1995) 
13-Aug East German border guards begin construction of the Berlin Wall (1961)
13-Aug Lamar Smith,  who had organized blacks to vote in a recent election, was shot dead on the courthouse lawn by a white man in broad daylight Brookhaven, Miss. (1955)
13-Aug Black students admitted to Little Rock High School, AR (1959)
14-Aug Henry David Thoreau jailed for war tax resistance in Mexican War (1847)
14-Aug India achieves independence from Britain after years of Gandhian resistance (1947)
14-Aug 10,000 Northern Ireland women demonstrate for peace in Belfast (1976)
15-Aug Congress quickly passes law to remove Native Americans from Black Hills country after gold is found there.(1876)
15-Aug India achieves independence after years of Gandhi's non-violent campaign (1947)
15-Aug Woodstock festival begins (1969)
16-Aug Solidarity led government elected in Poland (1989)
17-Aug First of 350 B-52 bombers destroyed by U.S., as called for in START I treaty. (1993)
18-Aug James Meredith became the first African American to graduate from The University of Mississippi. (1963)
18-Aug Peace activists attempt to disrupt the launch of the Polaris submarine, Groton, CT (1982)
19-Aug Benjamin Banneker sends a copy of his just-published almanac to Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, along with an appeal on  behalf of African-Americans' "humiliating condition (slavery)..." (1791)
20-Aug North America's first slaves arrive in Virginia from Africa (1619)
20-Aug President Johnson signs a nearly $1 billion anti-poverty measure, the Economic Opportunity Act, which created the"Head Start", "Vista", and other "Great Society" programs.(1964)
20-Aug Cesar Chavez ends a 36-day fast protesting dangerous pesticides in the fields. (1988)
21-Aug Czechoslovakian people resist Soviet invasion (1968)
21-Aug Aquino assassinated in the Philippines; hundreds of thousands demonstrate against  Marcos (1983)
21-Aug Cesar Chavez ends 36 day hunger strike to protest the use of pesticides on field workers (1988)
22-Aug The Clotilde, the last known slave ship to arrive in America, docked at Mobile, AL under a veil of secrecy. (1854)
22-Aug United Farm Workers Formed. (1966)
23-Aug Czech media issue an appeal to paint over house numbers and street signs to make it harder for Russian occupiers to carry out arrests. (1968)
23-Aug A million join hands in a 400 mile chain of resistance to USSR, Baltic states (1989)
24-Aug Abbie Hoffman & Jerry Rubin throw 300 one-dollar bills from balcony onto  floor of New York Stock Exchange, to disrupt business as usual. (1967)
24-Aug U.F.W. lettuce strike begins  (1970)
25-Aug San Antonio Municipal Auditorium riot; progressive mayor Maury Maverick defends the free speech rights of communists to speak at the auditorium. (1939)
25-Aug Delegates from the Mississippi Freedom Party usurped the seats of the Mississippi delegation at the Democratic National Convention. After a failed attempt to remove them by force, convention officials, the "regular' white delegation had to find seats elsewhere. (1964)
25-Aug After the Soviet occupation of Prague, CZ, city buses began their routes bearing the signs, "U.S.: S.O.S." (1968)
25-Aug UN Security Council declares embargo against Iraq (1990)
26-Aug The French Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man. (1789)
26-Aug The Amistad, a slave ship, is seized by the slaves and lands on Long Island, NY (1839)
26-Aug 19th Amendment, women gain right to vote; celebrated as Women's Equality Day (1920)
26-Aug Samantha Smith, a youth invited to the Soviet Union after writing a letter calling for peace, dies in an airplane crash at age 13. (1985)
27-Aug International Peace Bureau established, Rome, Italy. (1872)
27-Aug Charles Schenk arrested; Supreme Court later says a "clear and present danger" was posed by his anti-draft leaflet "Long Live the Constitution of the U.S." (1917)
27-Aug Mother Teresa born in Skopje, Albania (1910)
27-Aug 15 nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact that officially abolished war but lacked means of enforcement. (1928)
27-Aug San Francisco Peace Torch begins its journey to  Washington, D.C. for a demonstration against the Vietnam  War. (1967)
27-Aug Strike against the visit of potentially nuclear-armed US warship closes New Zealand docks for a week. (1976)
27-Aug 36 women and four babies in pushchairs set off on their march to US Air Force base Greenham Common to protest about the deployment of American nuclear cruise missiles. (1981)
27-Aug 300,000 march in Washington on 20th anniversary of Civil Rights March, the second "March on Washington for  Jobs, Peace, & Freedom" (1983)
28-Aug England abolishes slavery. (1833)
28-Aug Teenager Emmett Till is brutally murdered after speaking "inappropriately" to a white woman. The questionable trial helped to mobilize the civil rights movement. (1955) 
28-Aug Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech delivered (1963)
28-Aug 60,000 join Peace People demonstrations, Belfast & Dublin, Ireland.(1976)
29-Aug Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first federal civil rights legislation since 1875. The bill established a civil rights commission and a civil rights division in the Justice Department. (1957) 
29-Aug SNCC voter registration drive begins in the South. (1961)
29-Aug Thousands of Chicanos gathered at Laguna Park in East L.A. to protest disproportionate number of deaths of Chicano soldiers in Vietnam. LAPD shot and killed journalist Ruben Salazar, accused of inciting the Chicano community. (1970)
29-Aug Women call on women worldwide for peace. European Peace Caravan, Sarajevo, Bosnia. (1991)
30-Aug "Hot line" telephone link  established between Kremlin & White House. (1963)
30-Aug Democratic Party convention refuses to seat black protest delegation in place of all-white delegation from state of Mississippi. (1964)
30-Aug Ten empty school busses are blown up in Pontiac, Michigan eight days before bussing of 8,700 children to  achieve racial balance in the schools was scheduled  to begin. (1971)
31-Aug Marcus Garvey, leader of the Black separatist movement, was inaugurated provisional president of "The Republic of Africa" in a Harlem ceremony. (1921)
31-Aug Mexican-Americans in Beeville, Texas, desegregate the local high school. (1931)
31-Aug 2000 attend "World Unity or World Destruction" rally, London. (1941)
31-Aug Seven Chrokee Indian youths, accompanied by two adults, began a three-day sit-in outside Dunn High School in North Carolina to gain admission there instead of at the distant all-Indian school. (1960)
31-Aug Kenneth Kaunda, later to become President of Zambia, threatened to call upon Northern Rhodesia's 11,000 civil servants to resign. (1962)
31-Aug President Johnson signs law making the burning of draft cards a federal offense. (1965)
SEPTEMBER
1-Sep Traditional date of the destruction of Jerusalem. (69)
1-Sep Carl von Ossietzky founds Nie Wieder Krieg in Berlin, Germany (1920)
1-Sep Germany invades Poland, starting World War II (1939)
1-Sep Charles Liteky & George Mizo begin Fast For Life against U.S. support of Nicaraguan contras, Washington D.C. (1986)
1-Sep Kurdish & British activists blockade an arms trade exhibition outside London. 89 arrested. (1997)
1-Sep International Day of War Tax Resistance
2-Sep A mob of white coal  miners violently attacked their Chinese co-workers in Rock Springs, Wyoming, for  refusing to participate in a strike for higher  wages. (1885)
3-Sep Abolitionist, journalist, author,  and human rights advocate Frederick Douglass made his dramatic escape from slavery. (1838)
4-Sep Paul Robeson, defying racist mob, sings to 15,000 at Peekskill, NY (1949)
4-Sep Governor Faubus of Arkansas called out National Guard to prevent integration of black students into Central High School in Little Rock. President Eisenhower sent in troops to enforce the law. (1957) 
4-Sep 10,000 dance on nuclear reactor site, Gorleben, W. Germany (1982)
5-Sep Some 10,000 workers assembled in New York City to participate in America's first Labor Day parade. (1882)
6-Sep Jane Addams, founder of WILPF and Nobel Peace Prize winner born (1860)
7-Sep An Idaho jury returned a $6.3 million civil judgment against the Aryan Nations, its founder Richard Butler and former security guards. (2000)
9-Sep Religious conscientious objector Corbett Bishop, is arrested after walking out of a Civilian Public Service Camp and is arrested; during subsequent trials and imprisonments, he refuses any type of cooperation with the goivernment until he is released 193 days later. (1944)
9-Sep Students at Chu Van An boys' high school in Saigon tore down the government flag and raised a Buddhist flag to protest the corrupt Diem regime in S. Vietnam; 1,000 were arrested. (1963)
9-Sep Plowshares activists hammer missile cone, King of Prussia, PA (1980)
12-Sep Steven Biko, South African leader, killed in prison (1977)
13-Sep European Parliament recommends end to war toy advertisements (1982)
14-Sep Eugene Debs sentenced to ten years in prison for opposing U.S. entry into World War I (1918)
14-Sep Citizens of Prague, Czechoslovakia, begin a week-long boycott of German-controlled newspapers. (1941)
14-Sep Free Speech Movement begins in Berkeley, CA (1964)
15-Sep Antoinette Brown of South Butler, New York, becomes America's first female minister. (1853)
15-Sep Respect for the Aged Day (In Japan)
15-Sep Four black children - Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson and Cynthia Wesley -  killed in Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, AL by a bomb blast. (1963)
16-Sep President Ford announces a conditional amnesty program for Vietnam War deserters and draft-evaders, providing they agree to work two years in public service. (1974)
16-Sep William Whippers "An Address on Non-resistance to Offensive Aggression" was published. This landmark essay predated Thoreau's treatise on Civil Disobedience by 12 years. (1837) 
18-Sep Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act, allowing slave owners to reclaim slaves who escaped into another state.
19-Sep 80,000 demonstrate for democratic peace in Hague (1926)
19-Sep The United States conducts its first underground nuclear  test, in the Nevada desert. (1957)
19-Sep Solidarity Day - 400,000 rally in Washington, D.C. to support labor (1991)
20-Sep In anticipation of the Stamp Act, George Wshington suggests closing the courthouses so that the British have no way to collect objectionable taxes. (1765)
20-Sep National Negro Convention, a group of 38 free African-Americans from eight states, meets in Philadelphia to abolish slavery & improve the social status of African-Americans.  (1830)
20-Sep The District of Columbia abolishes the slave trade. (1850)
20-Sep William Lloyd Garrison founds New England Non-Resistance Society, anti-slavery group (1838)
20-Sep Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, exposing conditions in the Chicago meatpacking industry,  published. (1906)
20-Sep Rabindranath Tagore urges resistance to practice of "untouchability," British India.  (1932)
20-Sep 63 arrested for blocking bulldozers in Syracuse, NY, uraban renewal project. (1963)
21-Sep War Resisters League organizes first anti-Vietnam War demonstration in U.S., New York City. (1963)  
21-Sep 10,000 Filipinos defy government order & stage "Freedom March". (1980)
22-Sep The Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb. (1949)
22-Sep American Indian Movement (AIM) activists attempt to arrest the deputy director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  (BIA) in Washington, D.C. (1971)
22-Sep Solidarity union formed in Poland under leadership of Lech Walesa.(1980)
22-Sep Farm Aid concert; more than 50 musicians raised $9 million for debt-ridden U.S. farmers. (1985)
23-Sep Mary Church Terrell, educator, political activist, and first president of the National Association of Colored  Women, was born in Memphis, Tennessee. (1863)
23-Sep First boycott, over rent charges, County Mayo, Ireland (1880)
24-Sep 10,000 draft files destroyed by fourteen anti-war activists - Milwaukee, WI (1968)
25-Sep Nine African-American children, protected by 300 army paratroopers with fixed bayonets, attend the all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, following a Supreme Court ruling that segregated schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment. (1957)
25-Sep Herbert Lee, who worked with civil rights leader Bob Moses to help register black voters, was killed by a state legislator who claimed self-defense and was never arrested, in Liberty, Miss. (1961)
28-Sep Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat signed "phase two" of their peace agreement in Washington, D.C. (1995)  
29-Sep Congress authorizes the establishment of a 1000-man standing army. (1789)
29-Sep Britain began to govern Palestine under a League of Nations mandate. (1923) 
29-Sep Birthday of Polish labor leader, president and Nobel Peace Prize winner Lech Walesa. (1943)
30-Sep Two are killed and 70 wounded in a riot at the University of Mississippi when 2,000 KKK and student demonstrators try to keep a black man, James Meredith, from being admitted to classes (1962)
30-Sep 1,400 draft cards burned in anti Viet Nam war protest, Puerto Rico (1970)
OCTOBER
1-Oct Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense (1776)
1-Oct Anti-Kriegs Museum, first museum for peace, opened in Berlin (1920)
1-Oct Army kills and injures hundreds during student protest of university policies, Mexico City (1968)
1-Oct World Vegetarian Day, sponsored by the North American Vegetarian Society
1-Oct Five Plowshares activists pour blood on submarines at General Dynamics (1984)
2-Oct Mahatma Gandhi born (1869)
2-Oct An antinuclear peace march sponsored by the Committee for Nonviolent Action arrives in Moscow ten months after its start in San Francisco. (1961)
2-Oct The United States applies economic sanctions to South Africa. (1986)
3-Oct First British nuclear bomb test, Monte Bello, Australia. (1952)
4-Oct Earl Butz resigned as agriculture secretary with an apology for what he called the "gross indiscretion" of uttering a racist remark. (1976)
4-Oct The Mozambique government and RENAMO rebels signed an historic peace accord, ending 16 years of civil war in the southeast African nation. (1993)
4-Oct Demonstrations across the country protest the scheduled launch of the space probe Cassini with a plutonium payload. (1997)
5-Oct Chief Joseph, leader of the Nez Pierce Indians, surrendered to the American Army, ending a desperate struggle by his people for self-determination. (1877)
5-Oct Birthday of activist Philip Berrigan. (1923)
5-Oct In 1965, Pope Paul VI made an unprecedented 14-hour visit to New York to plead for world peace before the United Nations. (1965)
5-Oct 2,000 activists demonstrate against development of uranium mines in Black Hills, South Dakota. (1979)
5-Oct Raoul Wallenberg Day, honoring the Swedish diplomat who saved 100,000 Hungarian Jews during WWII.
5-Oct "Stop the hatred to stop the war" demonstration,  Belgrade, Yugoslavia. (1991)
5-Oct President Clinton ordered a resumption in nuclear testing after China broke an informal moratorium and exploded a nuclear device beneath its western desert. (1993)
6-Oct Arrival of first pacifists from Germany in America, to Pennsylvania (1683)
6-Oct Gandhi ends 21-day fast for Hindu-Moslem unity, India.(1924)
6-Oct 346 protestors arrested at site of proposed Black Fox nuclear plant, Inola, Oklahoma. (1978)
7-Oct 20,000 march against Marcos dictatorship, Manila, Philippines. (1984)
7-Oct 200,000 march on Washington for housing for the homeless (1989)
8-Oct Argentinian-born Communist revolutionary Ernesto Che Guevara, an important figure in the 1959 Cuban revolution, was killed while leading a guerrilla war in Bolivia. (1967)
9-Oct Women In Black founded, Belgrade,  Serbia. (1991) 
10-Oct The Spanish issued a royal decree which stated that every African-American who came to St. Augustine, FL and adopted Catholicism would be free and protected from the English. (1699) 
10-Oct Treaty demilitarizing outer space comes into force. (1967)
10-Oct U.S. begins reparations payments to survivors & families of Japanese-Americans taken from their homes & put into internment camps during World War II. (1990)
10-Oct Greenpeace ship begins trip down Amazon River to protest illegal logging by transnational corporations. (1994)
11-Oct The San Francisco Board of Education orders the segregation of Asian schoolchildren. (1906)
11-Oct Campaign of individual satyagraha begins, India (1940)
11-Oct Nearly one million people flood Washington, D.C. demanding gay and lesbian rights (1987)
12-Oct Native Americans discover Columbus (1492)
12-Oct President Grant publicly condemns the Ku Klux Klan and orders the arrest of over 600 citizens involved in its activities in  South Carolina. (1871)
12-Oct Former President Theodore Roosevelt criticizes U.S.citizens who identify themselves by dual nationalities, saying,  "There is no room in this country for 'hyphenated Americanism.'" (1915)
12-Oct Reform Jewish Temple in Atlanta is firebombed in retaliation for Jewish support of local black civil rights activists. (1958)
13-Oct AFL votes to boycott all German-made products as a protest against Nazi antagonism to organized labor within Germany. (1934)
14-Oct William Penn, English reformer and founder of Pennsylvania,  born in London, England. (1644)
14-Oct On the eve of Jewish escape from the Sobibor extermination camp in Poland, a young telegraph operator, at risk of her life, delays for four hours sending a German  request for military reinforcements to catch the escapees. (1943)
14-Oct First national gay & lesbian march for civil rights in Washington, D.C., draws over 100,000 marchers. (1979)
14-Oct Dock workers in Darwin, Australia, begin seven-day strike, refusing to load uranium on board "Pacific Sky" for  eventual use by U.S. military. After a week, the ship is forced to  leave without its cargo. (1981)
15-Oct B'nai B'rith is founded in New York City. (1843)
15-Oct  7,000 march for nuclear disarmament, La Louviere, Belgium. (1961)
15-Oct David Miller first to burn his draft card after Congress outlaws it, NYC (1963)
15-Oct The "Endangered Species Preservation Act" becomes law (1966)
15-Oct  2 million take part in rallies, teach-ins and vigils on Vietnam Moratorium Day (1969)
16-Oct The colony of Maine grants religious freedom to all citizens. (1649)
16-Oct President Roosevelt alienates the South when he invites Booker T. Washington to the White House. (1901)
16-Oct Fannie Lou Hamer, crusader for black voting rights, born (1916)
16-Oct During medal presentations at the Olympics in Mexico City, sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised their fists in a Black power salute while the Star Spangled Banner played. They were suspended from the team. (1968)
16-Oct World Food Day, United Nations
17-Oct International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, United Nations
17-Oct Black Poetry Day, commemorating the birth in 1711 of Jupiter Hammon, the first African-American American to publish his own verse. (1760)
18-Oct British police arrested former Chilean dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet for questioning about "crimes of genocide and terrorism that include murder." (1998)
18-Oct The Shoemakers of Boston became the first labor union in the American colonies. (1648)
19-Oct U.S. marshals escort James Meredith onto University of Mississippi campus (1962)
20-Oct The House Un-American Activities Committee opened public hearings into communist influence in Hollywood. (1947)
20-Oct The Supreme Court rules that teachers could spank students if the students were told in advance of the behavior that would warrant such punishment. (1975)
20-Oct Rallies in 22 cities against United States'  200,000 troops in Persian Gulf (1990)
21-Oct The U.S. Army wins the Seminole wars in the Florida Everglades by inviting Osceola to a "peace conference", then jailing him. (1837)
21-Oct Chinese troops occupied Tibet. (1950)
21-Oct 100,000 march on Pentagon to end Vietnam War, 700 arrested (1967)
22-Oct 200,000 students boycott Chicago schools to protest de facto segregation (1963)
23-Oct The NAACP filed formal charges with the United Nations accusing the United States of racial discrimination. This appeal spurred President Truman to create a civil rights commission. (1947)
23-Oct Jackie Robinson, the first black baseball player hired by a major league team, was signed by the Brooklyn Dodgers and sent to their Montreal farm team. (1945)
24-Oct 25,000 homemakers in Iceland go on strike, doing no housework (1975)
24-Oct Two million demonstrate in Europe against Cruise and Pershing missiles (1983)
24-Oct United Nations Day
25-Oct Sadako Sasaki, who tried to fold 1,000 paper cranes, dies of leukemia (1955)
26-Oct The Lord Mayor of Cork, Ireland, Terence McSwiney, died after a two-and-a-half-month hunger strike in a British prison cell, demanding independence for Ireland. (1920)
27-Oct William Robinson & Marmaduke Steven, two Quakers who came from England in 1656 to escape religious persecution, are executed in the Massachusetts Bay Colony for their religious beliefs.
(1659)
27-Oct Philip Berrigan, Tom Lewis, David Eberhardt, & James Mengel pour duck's blood over  draft files in Baltimore, MD, protesting Vietnam War. (1967)
27-Oct 120,000 march against Vietnam War. London, England. (1968)
27-Oct Ralph Nader sets up a consumer organization known as Nader's Raiders. (1969)
28-Oct In a battle that traditionally marks the beginning of the Christian era in Europe, Constantine's army, wearing the cross, defeated the forces of Maxentius at Mulvian Bridge in Rome. (312)
29-Oct First compusory peacetime draft in United States begun. (1940)
29-Oct 100 demonstrators disrupt university ROTC drill with non-violent ridicule, Buffalo, NY (1969)
30-Oct Martin Luther King, Jr., is arrested & jailed in Birmingham, Alabama, on charges stemming from demonstrations in 1963. (1967)
30-Oct 500,000 Dutch in anti-missile rally, the Hague. (1983)
30-Oct Over 80 people arrested at Sugarloaf  Mountain in southern Oregon during a massive direct action to prevent corporate clear-cutting of old growth forests on public land. (1995)
31-Oct Earl Lloyd is the first African-American to play in National Basketball Association (NBA) game when he plays with the Washington Capitols. (1950)
NOVEMBER
1-Nov The Sons of Liberty marched through the streets of Boston to the burying ground carrying a coffin marked "old freedom." At the graveyard during the mock funeral, a groan emited from the coffin and old freedom rose from the grave, invunerable to the attacks of tyranny and oppression. (1765)
1-Nov A number of newspapers in the American colonies ceased publication rather than pay the hated stamp tax. (1765)
1-Nov Australia abolishes peace-time compulsory military training. (1929)
1-Nov A London organization sent a delegation of women to Geneva to lobby representatives at a test ban conference to push for an end to nuclear testing. (1958)
1-Nov McDonald's, under pressure from environmental groups, said it would replace plastic food containers with paper. (1990)
2-Nov President Ronald Reagan signs a bill designating a federal holiday honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1983)
3-Nov Washington orders the Continental Army disbanded.(1783)
3-Nov US Supreme Court declares Native Americans to be "aliens" (1883)
4-Nov Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is fatally shot minutes after attending a peace rally held in Tel Aviv's Kings Square in Israel. (1995)
5-Nov Italians are the first to drop bombs from airplanes when they bombed an oasis in Libya. (1911)
5-Nov Bobby Seale, the founder of the Black Panther Party, is sentenced to four years in prison on sixteen counts of contempt of court during the Chicago Eight trial in Chicago. (1969)
5-Nov Goban Mbeki, an early leader of the African National Congress, was released from Robben Island prison after serving twenty-four years. (1987)
6-Nov The United States exploded the world's first hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific. (1952)
6-Nov The Iran-Contra affair, a scandal that involved the illegal selling of arms to Iran to fund
anti-communist guerrilla forces in Nicaragua, was revealed to the American public. (1986)
7-Nov Abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy dies defending his printing press, Alton, IL (1837)
7-Nov Jeannette Rankin, America's first Congresswoman, was elected in Montana. (1916)
7-Nov New Jersey becomes the first state to allow girls into the little league. (1973)
8-Nov Dorothy Day born (1897)
8-Nov Trail of Broken Treaties march occupies Bureau of Indian Affairs, Wash., DC (1972)
9-Nov 78 Native Americans take over Alcatraz Island, San Francisco, CA (1969)
9-Nov Berlin Wall falls (1989)
10-Nov Society for Human Rights, first gay rights organization in U.S., founded in Chicago (1924)
10-Nov Kristalnacht - across Germany, Nazis murder dozens of Jews, attack synagogues and loot stores in open terror that leads to holocaust (1938)
11-Nov A Roman Catholic priest in Berlin, Provost Lichtenberg, preached in a sermon that he wanted to be deported to the East with the Jews to be and pray with them. He was. (1941)
11-Nov 250,000 march for abortion rights in Washington, DC (1989)
12-Nov Elizabeth Cady Stanton, spokeswoman for the human rights of women, was born in Johnstown, NY. (1815)
13-Nov The first recorded "sit-down" strike in the US was staged by workers at the Hormel Packing Company in Austin, Minn. (1933)
13-Nov 1,000 celebrate 300th anniversary of first Quaker peace protest with silent vigil at Pentagon (1960)
13-Nov US Supreme Court rules segregation is unconstitutional on public buses. (1956)
13-Nov The Vietnam War Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C.(1982)
14-Nov Solidarity leader Lech Walesa is released after 11 months in prison. (1989)
15-Nov The NY General assembly permits Jews to omit phrase "upon the faith of a Christian" from abjuration oath. (1727)
15-Nov US Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) founded (1957)
15-Nov 500,000 peacefully demonstrate in Wash DC against Vietnam War (1969)
16-Nov When the surviving Jews of Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, were ordered to the town hall to register, only 50 obeyed; at leasy 6,000 remained hidden in bunkers. (1944)
16-Nov Six Jesuit priests murdered by Salvadoran military (1989)
17-Nov New York newspaper publisher Peter Zenger is arrested and imprisoned for seditious libel against New York Governor William Cosby. (1734)
17-Nov Reformer and children's rights advocate Grace Abbott born in Grand Island, NE. (1878) 
17-Nov Samuel Gompers organized the forerunner of the American Federation of Labor. (1888)
18-Nov Birth of Sojourner Truth, feminist, abolitionist, former slave (1787)
18-Nov The National Women's Christian Temperance Union was organized in Cleveland, Ohio. (1888)
18-Nov South Africa's ruling National Party and leaders of 20 other parties representing blacks and whites approved a new national constitution that provides fundamental rights to blacks. (1993)
19-Nov Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address. (1863)
19-Nov In an unprecedented move for an Arab leader, Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat travels to Jerusalem in Israel to seek a permanent  peace settlement with Egypt's Jewish neighbor after decades of conflict. (1977)
20-Nov Nuremberg War Crimes Trials begin and continue until October 1, 1946, establishing that subordinates are responsible for their own actions even if  ordered by  their superiors. (1945)
20-Nov The UN issued "The Declaration of the Rights of the Child." (1959)
20-Nov President John F. Kennedy issued an executive order forbidding racial discrimination in public housing. (1962)
20-Nov the U.S. Senate approved the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). (1993)
21-Nov National Organization for Women (NOW) founded in Chicago. (1966)
21-Nov President Lyndon Johnson sighed the Air Quality Act, beginning the war on pollution in America. (1967)
21-Nov The Freedom of Information Act is passed by Congress over President Ford's veto. (1974)
21-Nov 350,000 march against nuclear weapons in Holland. (1981)
21-Nov President Bush signed the Civil Rights Act of 1991, making it easier for workers to sue in job discrimination cases. (1991)
21-Nov Dayton Peace Accords, ending the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina, initialed at Wright-Patterson AFB; formally signed in Paris on Dec. 14.  (1995) 
21-Nov China jailed well-known dissident Wei Jing-sheng and charged him with trying to overthrow the government. (1995)
22-Nov New York female garment workers call for  general strike, leading to the "Uprising of the 20,000."  (1909)
22-Nov The first interracial kiss in TV history is shown on Star Trek between Capt. Kirk and Uhura. (1968)
22-Nov Circumpolar peoples from Alaska, Canada,  Greenland, Norway, & Sweden meet in  Copenhagen to demand self-government & control  over Arctic land & resources. (1972)
22-Nov Some 2,000 people taken into custody during a demonstration against the Army's School of the Americas, accused by critics of training soldiers involved in atrocities in Latin America. (1998)
23-Nov First recorded strike takes place, in Egypt, by laborers  working on pyramid. (1170 BCE)
23-Nov U.S. Supreme Court strikes down Louisville (Ky.) ordinance  requiring blacks & whites to live in separate residential areas. (1917)
24-Nov Women from 21 states met in Cleveland to organize the American Women Suffrage Association. (1869)
24-Nov A group of writers, producers and directors that became known as the "Hollywood 10" are cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to answer questions about alleged Communist influence in the movie industry.(1947)
24-Nov Congress votes to formally apologize to Hawaii for overthrowing the government in 1893. (1993)
24-Nov Plowshare 7 damage B52's carrying cruise missiles at Griffith Air Force Base. (1983)
25-Nov Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.(1867)
25-Nov British government outlaws the IRA in all of Great Britain. (1974)
25-Nov The Iran-Contra affair erupted as U.S. President Reagan and Attorney General Edwin Meese revealed that profits from secret arms sales to Iran had been diverted to American-supported Nicaraguan rebels in violation of  U.S. laws. (1986)
25-Nov 2,000 march in NY city to protest sale of furs. Over 50 other cities hold demonstrations. (1988)
26-Nov Birthday of Sarah Moore Grimke, antislavery/women's rights advocate. (1792)
26-Nov U.S. Supreme Court declares 1875 Civil Rights Act unconstitutional. (1883)
26-Nov U.N. passes Resolution Against Capital Punishment. (1968)
27-Nov First convention of No-Conscription Fellowship, in England. (1915) 
27-Nov Jawaharlal Nehru, who fought British authority through acts of passive resistance and became India's first Prime Minister, made an impassioned speech for global disarmament. (1957)
27-Nov March on Washington for Peace in Vietnam' Washington, D.C. 15,000-30,000  march. (1965)
27-Nov  U.S. Army medics stationed in Pleiku stage a fast to protest  the Vietnam War. (1969)
27-Nov 20,000 rally for peace in Northern Ireland, Trafalgar Square,  London. (1976)
27-Nov Activists paint anti-military graffiti on war planes due for delivery to Turkey, Woensdrecht, te Netherlands. (1988)
28-Nov Sinn Fein  is founded in Dublin by Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith. (1905)
29-Nov The Sand Creek Massacre takes place. Cheyenne and  Arapaho Indians, awaiting surrender terms, are attacked by 900 calvarymen. (1864)
30-Nov Pope Innocent III orders Jews to wear a special badge. (1216)
30-Nov The American Society of Free Persons of Colour met for the first time, in Philadelphia. (1830)
30-Nov Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act becomes law. (1993)
30-Nov Thousands of activists, students, unionists and environmentalists shut down the World Trade Organization (WTO) summit in Seattle. (1999)
DECEMBER
1-Dec International Peace Bureau launched, Berne,  Switzerland. (1891)
1-Dec Costa Rica disbands its army. (1948)
1-Dec Rosa Parks, NAACP staff member, arrested for not giving up her bus seat (1955)
1-Dec 12 nations sign treaty for scientific peaceful use of Antarctica (1959)
1-Dec World AIDS Day, sponsored by the American Association of World Health (since 1980s)
1-Dec A silent march of women, protesting conscription, is met by a police attack & the arrest of 37 women. Khartoum, Sudan. (1997)
2-Dec Members of the Jewish community of Newport, RI witnessed the dedication of the Touro Synagogue, the first synagogue in what became the United States. (1763)
2-Dec The St. Petersburg Soviet urges people to withdraw funds from banks to weaken confidence in the Russian economy to prevent the Czarist government from obtaining foreign loans needed to combat the revolution. (1905)
2-Dec Karl Liebknecht is the only member of German Parliament to vote against  war with France & Britain. (1914)
2-Dec The nuclear age begins when the world's first self-sustaining fission reaction was created. (1942)
2-Dec The U.S. Senate votes sixty-five to twenty-two to condemn Senator Joseph McCarthy for misconduct unbecoming to a senator. (1954)
2-Dec Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created (1970)
2-Dec Three Maryknoll nuns and a lay missionary murdered in El Salvador (1980)
3-Dec The North Star newspaper founded by Frederick Douglass. Its slogan was, "Right is of no sex . . Truth I of no color . . God is the father of us all and we are all brothers." (1847)
3-Dec Oberlin College, the first college to enroll men and women on equal terms and  the first school  in America to advocate the abolition of slavery and to accept African-American men and women on equal terms with white students, is founded in Ohio. (1833)
3-Dec Mary McLeod Bethune founds the National Council of  Negro Women. (1935)
3-Dec Police arrest some 800 students at the University of California at Berkeley, one day after the students storm the administration building and staged a massive sit-in. (1964)
3-Dec The Bhopal-Union Carbide Disaster; a pesticide plant located in central India leaks a toxic cloud of methyl isocyanate into the air, killing 2,000 people immediatelyand injuring 300,000. (1984)
3-Dec International treaty banning land mines signed by 122 countries (1997)
3-Dec International Day of Disabled Persons, United Nations
4-Dec The American Anti-Slavery Society is formed by Arthur Tappan in Phila. (1833)
4-Dec Five members of a Woman's Suffragist group unroll a banner from the visitor's gallery during President Wilson's address to Congress, asking, "Mr. President, What will you do for woman sufferage?" (1916) 
4-Dec El Congreso del Pueblo de Habla Española (The  Spanish-Speaking Peoples Congress) holds its first conference in Los  Angeles. (1938)
4-Dec Cesar Chavez jailed for 20 days for refusing to call off UFW lettuce boycott. (1970)
4-Dec  United Nations agrees to establish University of  Peace (& shortwave radio station Radio Peace International) in Costa Rica. (1980)
5-Dec President Harry S Truman issues Executive Order 9808 which set up a committee to study the protection of civil rights in the United States. (1946)
5-Dec The African-American community of Montgomery, Alabama launch their boycott of the city's bus system. (1955)
5-Dec The American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations merge to form the AFL-CIO. (1955)
5-Dec New York City becomes the first city to legislate against racial or religious discrimination in housing market (Fair Housing Practices Law). (1957)
5-Dec 1000 antiwar protestors try to close NYC  induction center; 585 arrested  including Allen
  Ginsberg and Dr. Benjamin Spock. (1967)
5-Dec UN adopts charter for University for Peace, Costa Rica (1980)
6-Dec Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery in Maryland. (1849)
6-Dec The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, abolishing slavery. Congress passed it on Jan 24. (1865)
6-Dec An explosion at a mine owned by the Fairmont Coal Company in Monongah, WVa kills 361 coal miners, the worst mining disaster in American history. (1907)
7-Dec The first execution by lethal injection takes place at the state penitentiary in Huntsville, Texas. (1983)
8-Dec Jeanette Rankin casts only vote against US entry into WWII. (1941)
8-Dec Ex-Beatle John Lennon was shot and killed  while leaving his apartment building in New York City. (1980)
8-Dec U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign the first treaty to reduce the nuclear arsenals of the two superpowers. (1987)
8-Dec North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) signed into law. (1993)
9-Dec Solidarity leader Lech Walesa elected President of Poland. (1990)
10-Dec 1st Nobel Peace Prizes (to Jean Henri Dunant, Frederic Passy) (1901)
10-Dec The United Nations adopted the Declaration of Human Rights. (1948)
10-Dec Human Rights Day first observed (1950)
10-Dec The U.S. Supreme Court struck down a New York law that allowed a criminal's profits for selling his or her story to be seized and given to the victims. (1991)
10-Dec Julia Butterfly Hill, age 23, climbs "Luna," a 1,000 year-old California redwood, to protect it from loggers. (1997)
11-Dec The General Assembly of the United Nations votes to establish the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) to provide relief and support to children living in countries devastated by WWII. (1946)
11-Dec President Kennedy orders 425 helicopter crewmen to South Vietnam, the first large force of U.S. military personnel, bolstering the small number of U.S. advisors in the country since the late 1950s. (1961)
11-Dec A US Supreme Court decision outlawed the use of disorderly conduct statutes as grounds for arresting African-Americans sitting in to obtain equal service. (1961)
11-Dec President Carter signs law creating a $1.6 billion environmental superfund to pay for cleanup of chemical spills and toxic waste dumps. (1980)
11-Dec 30,000 women tried to rip down fences around a U.S.cruise missile base at Greenham Common, England. (1983)
11-Dec The three major US TV networks agreed on joint standards to limit entertainment violence by the start of the next fall's season. (1992)
11-Dec In the largest Russian military offensive since the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, thousands of troops and hundreds of tanks pour into the breakaway Russian republic of Chechnya. (1994)
12-Dec North and South Korea agree to reunify peacefully after 46 years of division and animosity. (1991)
12-Dec By only three votes, the Senate kills a constitutional amendment giving Congress authority to outlaw flag burning. (1995)
13-Dec Leaders of the Central American countries held a summit meeting and agreed to pledge $4.5 billion to fight poverty. (1991)
14-Dec The United Nations adopted a resolution to outlaw the use of the atomic bomb. (1946)
14-Dec Wilma Mankiller becomes the first woman to lead a major American Indian tribe when she takes office as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. (1985)
14-Dec In Paris, France, leaders from the former Yugoslavia sign the Bosnia peace treaty, formally ending four years of bloody conflict. (1995)
15-Dec Bill of Rights becomes U.S. law as Virginia ratifies the first 10 amendments to the Constitution (1791)
15-Dec The first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children founded in New York. (1874)
15-Dec In South Dakota, Sitting Bull, a leader of the Hunkpapa Teton  Sioux, is killed by Indian police at his home in a remote corner of the Standing Rock Reservation. (1891)
15-Dec Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh sent a note to the French Premier, Leon Blum, asking for peace talks. (1946)
15-Dec  In Tel Aviv, Israel, Adolf Eichmann, the Nazi SS colonel who organized Adolf Hitler's "final solution of the Jewish question," is condemned to death by a Jewish war crimes tribunal. (1961)
15-Dec The American Psychiatric Association reverses its long-standing position and declares that homosexuality is not a mental illness. (1973)
15-Dec A popular nonviolent uprising began that resulted in the downfall of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu. (1989)
15-Dec The Chernobyl nuclear power plant was shut down 14 years after it spawned the world's worst nuclear accident. (2000)
16-Dec Boston Tea Party. (1773)
17-Dec Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a radical Roman Catholic priest who was an opponent of the dictatorship of Jean-Claude Duvalier, is elected president  in the first free election in Haiti's history. (1990)
18-Dec Slavery abolished by 13th amendment. (1865)
18-Dec Of the 8,000 Jews in Athens, Greece, 6,800 remained hidden rather than register as directed. (1943)
18-Dec Julia Butterfly Hill descends from her tiny platform 180 feet up in Luna, a giant Redwood tree, after perching in it for 738 days protecting it from loggers. (1999)
19-Dec Carter G. Woodson, a Harvard-educated historiographer known as the father of Black history, was born in Virginia. (1875)
19-Dec Czechoslovakia  elects playwright and dissident, Vaclav Havel, president. (1989)
20-Dec First US jury trial in Delaware: Marcus Jacobson condemned for insurrection & sentenced to flogging, branding & slavery. (1669)
20-Dec Animal rights terrorists fire-bomb Harrod's department store, London, after  finding poodle fur collars on some coats. (1988)
20-Dec Kansas reservist Dr. Yolanda Huet-Vaughn refuses orders for the Gulf War. She is later sentenced to prison, & the Kansas medical board strips Huet-Vaughn of her license to practice, because of her conscientious objection. (1990)
20-Dec Hundreds of thousands link hands in Chechnya in human chain to protest Russian invasion. (1994)
21-Dec Montgomery, AL buses integrated (1956)
21-Dec Britain banned the death penalty. (1961)
21-Dec 700 supporters visit jailed war resisters, Allenwood Federal Penitentiary, PA. (1969)
21-Dec Pan Am "Flight 103" explodes over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing 270. (1988)
21-Dec Eleven former Soviet republics peaceably declared an end to the Soviet Union and forged a commonwealth. (1991)
22-Dec Four month strike by 23 conscientious objectors (COs) ends dining hall segregation at Danbury Federal Penitentiary, Connecticut. (1943)
22-Dec Henry House becomes first U.S. soldier to be court martialed for protesting against Vietnam War.(1965)
22-Dec Radio Free Alcatraz broadcast for first time from Berkeley radio station KPFA. (1967)
22-Dec Congress passes the Boland amendment (411-0) which prohibited covert efforts by  the President to overthrow the Nicaraguan   government. (1982)
22-Dec "Operation Toys for Guns" begins in New York City. (1993)
22-Dec Paramilitaries associated with  the ruling PRI party in Mexico massacre 45 peasants in the  village of Acteal, Chiapas. Government will use  this event to occupy & suppress the population  with over 70,000 troops & expel humanitarian  observers stationed in the area. (1997)
23-Dec University of Tennessee refuses to play Duquesne University, because they may use a black player in the basketball game. (1946)
23-Dec President Truman  pardons 1,523 of the 15,805 World War II draft resistors. (1947)
23-Dec In Yugoslavia, there are prayers for peace in all churches, but a planned  interfaith peace rally is banned by Yugoslavian authorities. (1991)
24-Dec Ku Klux Klan founded in Pulaski, TN. (1865)
24-Dec Costa Rica withdraws from League of Nations to protest US Monroe  Doctrine. (1924)
24-Dec Parents of reservists from Grocka protest at Army headquarters, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. (1991)
25-Dec On Christmas morning, the majority of German troops engaged in World War I cease firing and begin to sing Christmas carols. At dawn, many emerge from their trenches and approach the Allied lines across no man's land, calling out "Merry Christmas" in  their enemies' native tongues. At first the Allied soldiers suspect a trick, but soon climb out of their trenches and shake hands with the German soldiers. The men exchange and sing carols.The Christmas Truce lasts a few days. (1914)
26-Dec The first Kwanzaa, a non-religious African-American holiday that celebrates family, community,
and culture for seven days, is organized in Los Angeles by Dr. Maulana Karenga, a professor and chairman of Black Studies at California State University at Long Beach. (1966)
26-Dec The Soviet Union began a massive airlift of an estimated 85,000 men into Kabul, Afghanistan, in an effort to reinstate Communist rule in the nation. (1979)
27-Dec Prohibitionist Carry Nation carried out her first public smashing of a bar, at the Carey Hotel in Wichita, KS. (1900)
27-Dec Founding of International Fellowship of Reconciliation, inter-religious peace group. (1914)
27-Dec Vietnam Veterans Against the War peace protest at historic Betsy Ross House, Phila. (1971) 
27-Dec King Juan Carlos ratified Spain's first democratic constitution (1978)
28-Dec The Knights of Labor, a labor union of tailors in Philadelphia, hold the first Labor Day ceremonies in American history. (1869)
29-Dec Army massacres 300 women, men and children at Wounded Knee, SD (1890)
30-Dec Tuskeegee Institute reported that 1952 was the first year in 71 years of record keeping that no one was lynched in the United States. (1952)
30-Dec Afghan Prime Minister Daud announced that proposed military aid from the United States to Pakistan should be read as a "grave danger to security and peace of Afghanistan." (1953)
as of July, 2002